PHYSICS 1

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS


*The branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy
Ans : Physics
*Branches of physics are Dynamics,Thermody namics, Mechanics, Optics, Acoustics, Electronics, Astrophysics, Nuclear physics.



MATTER


*Anything that possesses weight and occupies space is - Matter
*7 states of matter Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Bose Einstein Condensate, Fermionic condensate, Quark Gluon Plasma.
*Matter that has definite shape and volume
Ans : Solid
*Matter that doesn’t have definite shape, but has definite volume - Liquid
*Matter that doesn’t have definite shape and volume, but occupies the shape of container
Ans : Gas
*Fourth state of matter - Plasma
*Fifth state of matter - Bose-Einstein Condensate
*At ultra high temperature matter exist in plasma form.
*Molecules are seen in most irregular form in Plasma State.
*99% of matter in the universe is in plasma form.
*Theory of classification of fundamental particles and how they interact is known as 
Ans : Standard Model
Elementary Particles
Fermions Bosons

Quarks Leptons Gauge Bosons

   

Higgs Boson


*Number of elementary fermions in standard model -12
*Any particle made up of Quarks and Gluons are called as Hadrons
*Hadrons are categorized into two
Ans : Mesons and Baryons
*Massive particles which are made up of quark -Antiquark pair are called 
Ans : Mesons
*Exchange particle in Quark-Quark interaction
Ans : Gluon
*Any Particle which are made up of 3 quarks
Ans : Baryons
*The most stable form of hadrons are
Ans : Protons and Neutrons
*The term ‘God Particle’ was first coined by
Ans : Leon Lederman
*The term ‘Boson’ was first coined by 
Ans : Paul Dirac
*The word ‘quark’ was coined by 
Ans : Murray Gell Man
*Quark model of matter was discovered by
Ans : Murray Gellman and George Swieg
*Bose - Einstein condensate was first predicted by
Ans : Sathyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein
*The ‘pure’ Bose - Einstein condensate was first created by
Ans : Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman
*A super fluid phase formed by bosonic atoms is known as
Ans : Bose-Einstein Condensate 
*A Superfluid phase formed by fermonic particles
Ans : Fermionic Condensate 
*Equipment used by the scientist to create Higgs boson and other particles for observation and study
Ans : LHC (Large Hadron Collider)
*Worlds largest and highest energy particle accelerator
Ans : LHC (27 Kms in Circumference)
*LHC is located in
Ans : Geneva (Switzerland)
*LHC is operated by 
Ans : CERN
*CERN is a European Organization for Nuclear Research
*Purpose of LHC Experiment - To investigate and understand why there is a diversity of life in the Universe.



BOSONS


*Energy carriers in the matter are known as 
Ans : Bosons
*Bosons which carry electro magnetic force 
Ans : Photons 
*Bosons which carry weak nuclear force 
Ans : W&Z Bosons 
*Bosons which carry strong nuclear force 
Ans : Gluons
*Particle which gives the property of mass to the matter is 
Ans : Higgs Boson 
*Fundamental particle which is known as God Particle
Ans : Higgs Boson 
*Particle which is considered as the buiding blocks of all life
Ans : Higgs Boson (discovered at CERN in 4th July 2012)



Units and Measurements


*Units are of two types 
1. Fundamental units  2.Derived units
Fundamental units
*Fundamental units are the units of fundamental  quantities which can’t be derived from any other quantities like Length, Mass and Time.
*Fundamental units can be expressed in three kinds of measuring systems such as CGS, MKS and FPS.
*FPS is also known as British System of Units.
*The unit of Time is same in all the Systems.



Measurement

   

CGS

 

MKS

 

FPS


*Length-Centri meter -Metre-Foot
*Mass-Gram-Kilogram -Pound
*Time-Second-Second-Second



7 base units in SI system


*Base quantity Name Symbol
*Length -metre -m
*Mass -kilogram -kg
*Time -second -s
*Electric current -ampere -A
*Temperature -kelvin -K
*Amount of substance -mole -mol
*Luminous intensity -candela -cd



*SI (System International) is the modified form of MKS System.
*SI system is the globally approved form of unit system.
*Unit of Distance - Parsec (Parsec is a Light Year Distance Unit)
*1 Parsec = 3.26 light year
 *Plane angle -Radian (rad)
*Solid angle -Steradian (Sr)
*Temperature -Degree Celsius (°C)
*Energy, Work, Heat -Joule (J)
*Force -Newton (N)
*Power, Radiant flux -Watt (W)
*Illuminance -Lux (lx)
*Electric charge -Coulomb ©
*Resistance -Ohm (Q)
*Conductance -Siemens (S)
*Capacitance -Farad (F.)
*Inductance -Henry (H)
*Pressure, Stress -Pascal (Pa)
*Magnetic flux -Weber (Wb)
*Radioactivity -Becquerel (Bq)
*Frequency -Hertz (Hz)
*Electric Potential Difference, EMF- Volt (V)
*Magnetic flux density-Tesla (T)
*Luminous flux -Lumen (lm)
*Catalytic activity -Katal (Kat)



Derived Units


*Derived Units are the units which are derived from the fundamental units.
eg: Speed, Area, Acceleration etc.
*In general, Physical quantities are divided into two classes.
1.Scalar quantities 2. Vector quantities
*A physical quantity that has only magnitude, but no direction is known as - Scalar quantity eg: Mass, Length, Time, Volume, Speed, Energy, Work, Pressure, Density etc.
*A physical quantity that has both magnitude and direction is known as - Vector quantity eg: Velocity, Momentum, Force, Acceleration, Displacement, Torque etc.



Work, Energy, Power

 

Work


*A work is said to be done if there is a displacement of the body on which force is acted, in the direction of the force applied.
*The work done by a force is given by area of force-displacement graph.
*A man pushes a metal block and fails to it He does - no work at all
*W = Fxd 
‘F’ - Force applied
'd’ - Distance which  object is displaced 
‘W' -'Work done by the force



Energy


*Ability of a body to do work - Energy Unit of work: Joule or Nm (Newton metre)
*In CGS, the unit of work is erg 1 Joule = 107erg
*The term ‘Energy’ was first coined by - Thomas Young.
Albert Einstein 
*Law of Conservation of Energy was put forwar d by 
Ans : Albert Einstein.
*According to law of conservation of energy, energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another.
*Einstein proposed special theory of Relativity in 1905.
*Einstein proposed General theory of relativity in 1915.
*E = mc2 is known as the mass - energy equivalence which shows the relation between matter and energy.



Potential Energy & Kinetic Energy


*Energy of an object occurred due to its motion 
Ans : Mechanical energy
*Mechanical energy is of two forms,
1. Potential energy 2. Kinetic energy
*The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position is
Ans : Potential Energy (P.E).
*For a body of mass ‘m’ situated at a height ‘h’ above the ground, P.E. = mgh
‘g' federation due to gravity.
m - mass 
h-height
*Energy stored in the water-reservoir of a dam
Ans : Potential energy 
*Energy stored in a compressed spring 
Ans : Potential energy
*Potential energy of an object at rest on ground 
Ans : Zero
*Potential energy increases as the height
Ans : increases.
*For an object thrown vertically upwards potential energy increases and kinetic energy decreases.
*Potential energy of an object will always be possessed above the level of earth’s surface. For a freely falling object potential energy decreases as it approaches earth.
*The energy possessed by a body due to its motion is
Ans : Kinetic Energy (K.E.)
*For a body of mass ‘m’ moving with a velocity V, K.E. = V2 mv2 m = mass, v = velocity
*If the velocity of an object is doubled, its kinetic energy becomes four times.
*If the mass of a moving body is doubled, its Kinetic energy is also doubled.
*A moving bullet or a moving stone possesses Kinejic energy.
*Kinetic energy is always positive.
*Law of conservation of momentum is used in the application of rocket propulsion, jet engine, firing of a pistol etc. 



Power


*The rate of doing work is known as Power. Power (P) = Work done / Time
*Unit of measurement of power is - Horse power
*Joule /sec= 1 watt
*1 horse power = 746 watts
*1 kilowatt = 1000 watts 
*1 megawatt =1000000 watts



Freely falling


*When an object falls towards the earth under gravity in the absence of air resistance is called freely falling body. 
*All objects in free fall near the earth have same acceleration.
*The acceleration of an object in free fall is independent of its
Ans : Mass



Terminal Velocity


*Terminal Velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through air. 
*At some speed, the force of resistance will be equal to the gravitational pull on the object. At this point the object ceases to accelerate and continues falling at a constant speed is called terminal velocity.



ELECTRICITY


*The flow of electrons is
Ans : Electricity
*Properties of Electricity
Ans : Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electric potential, Electro magnetism
*Electric charge was first observed in a substance called
Ans : Amber
*Fundamental quantity of electricity
Ans : Charge
*Unit of electric charge
Ans : coulomb
*1 coulomb = 6.25 x 1018 electrons
*Charge of an electron is 1.6 x 10-19C
*Electric current is the flow of electrically charged particles through a medium.
Current = Charge/Time
*Unit of flow of electric current - Ampere.
*Electric field is the region which surrounds the electrically charged particles. 



Michael Faraday


*Father of Electricity
Ans : Michael Faraday 
*Law of electrolysis was formulated by 
Ans : Michael Faraday 
*The concept of an electric field was introduced by
Ans : Michael Faraday 
*Dynamo was invented by 
Ans : Michael Faraday
*Electro magnetic Induction was discovered by
Ans : Michael Faraday 
*Electrolysis is the process of splitting up of a chemical substance when an electric current flows through it.
*Substance used for electrolysis are - electrolytes.
eg: Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Hydrochloric acid.
*Electrical conductivity of an electrolyte increases with the rise in temperature. Instrument that regulates the resistance or current in a circuit - Rheostat
*Electric potential is the capacity of an electric field to do work on an electric charge.
*Electro magnetism is the force that causes the interaction between the magnetic field and the electrically charged particles.
*Electro magnetism was discovered by Hans Christian Oersted (1820).
*Negatively charged particles gain electrons.
*Positively charged particles lose electrons.
*The stationary electric charge built up on a material is called
Ans : Static Electricity.
*Electricity that can flow from one point to another through the conductors, cables etc. is called
Ans : Dynamic Electricity (current electricity)
*Dynamic electricity is of two types.
1.Alternating current (AC)
2.Direct Current (DC)
*Alternating current (AC) is the continuous How of current.
*It reverses its direction and magnitude with respect to time.
*Direct Current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
*It does not reverse its direction with respect to time.
*Batteries, solar cells, thermocouples etc produce DC.
*DC was formerly known as Galvanic current.
*AC is used more widely than DC.
*The advantage of AC over DC is, it can be transmitted over long distances with minimum power loss.
*The device which conducts DC but blocks AC is Inductor.



Conductors and Insulators


*The substances which easily allows electricity to flow through them is called Conductors, eg: Metals, graphite, animal bodies and earth.
*The best conductor of electricity is Silver, as it has the least resistance.
*Copper and Aluminium are the metals commonly used in electrical circuits.



Energy Conversion


*Electric Fan -Electrical to Mechanical energy
*Electric bell -Electrical to Sound energy
*Solarcell -Solar to Electrical energy
*Electric bulb -Electrical to Light energy and Heat energy
*Battery -Chemical to electric energy
*Electric oven -Electrical to Heat energy
*Dynamo-Mechanical to Electrical energy
*Motor-Electrical to Mechanical energy
*Lightning conductor was invented by
Ans : Benjamin Franklin
*The liquid which conducts electricity but does not undergo electrolysis is
Ans : Mercury.
*Salt water conducts electricity depending on the concentration of dissolved salts.
*Substance which does not allow the flow of current through them is called - insulator eg: Glass, dry wood, dry paper, plastics, porcelain, mica, rubber, nylon, dry air etc.
*The commonly used insulator in electrical systems is porcelain or glass.
*The substance which partially conduct electricity is called - semiconductors.
eg: Germanium, Silicon



Resistance


*Resistance opposes the flow of electric current in a circuit.
*Resistivity is the opposite of conductivity.
*Conductivity is inversely proportional to the resistance.
ie; 1 siemens = 1/ ohm-1 = mho
*A filament of 60W bulb is thinner than the filament of 10GW bulb.
*If two bulbs of 60 W and 100W are connected in parallel, then the 100W bulb will glow more.
*If two bulbs of 60W and 100W are connected in series, then the 60W bulb will glow, more because the resistance of 60W bulb is more than that of 100W bulb.



Super conductivity


*At very low temperature most of the metals, allow current to pass freely through them. This phenomenon is called superconductivity and such materials are called super conductors.
*Super conductivity was discovered by the Dutch Physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes.
*Super conductors possess zero resistance at very low temperature.
*Ceramics is a superconductor above 100 K.



Electrical Power Transmission


*Most widely used current in domestic purposes is AC
*Electricity for domestic purpose is measured in Kilowatt hour (KWh) and are commonly called as ‘units’-lKWh = 1000 watt x 3600 seconds.
*KWh is also used as the commercial unit of electrical energy
*Electric power transmission was developed by Thomas Alva Edison.
*The supply voltage produced in India is 11 KV (Kilo Volt) or 11,000 volt. 
*Voltage of electricity supplied for houeshold use in India 220-230 volt
*The frequency of household electric current in India is 50 Hertz
*Instrument that measures the amount of electric energy used by a consumer - Watt hour meter (Electricity meter)
* In houses, electric wirings are connected in parallel because all the instruments in the house could get equal supply of electricity and stronger current for longer time.



Fuse


*A protecting device, which cuts off an electric circuit when high current flows through the wire 
Ans : Fuse 
*In an electric circuit, a fuse is connected in the live wire to avoid overloading.
*Copper or the alloy of Tin and Lead are the metals used in an ordinary fuse wire.
*A fuse wire is characterized by
Ans : High resistance & low melting point.
*Short circuiting is a high current produced in a low resistance circuit when two wires of main comes in contact with each other. 
*When a charged body is connected to the earth it gets neutralised. This is called earthing.
*Electric fittings are earthed to prevent electric shock.
*MCB - Miniature Circuit Breaker (a small trip switch that stops the flow of electric current in an overloaded electric circuit).
*ELCB - Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (safety device used in electrical installation with high Earth impedence to prevent shock).
*The earthwire and the fuse together protect the user and the electrical appliances
*Quartz crystal in watches work on the principle of peizo electricity.
*A cell uses chemical reaction to make electricity.
*A number of cells connected together are called battery.
*The negative electrode in a dry cell is cathode, eg: Zinc
* The positive electrode in a dry cell is anode, eg: carbon rod.
*The electrical device which is used to increase or decrease the amount of AC voltage between two circuits is - Transformer.
*Colour of positive wire in domestic circuits 
Ans :  Red/brown
*Colour of neutral wire in domestic circuits 
Ans : Black / blue
*Colour of earth wire in domestic circuits  
Ans : Green



EMF


*EMF (Electro Motive Force) or potential difference measured in volt is called voltage.
*The emf of a dry cell (torch cells, remote controls etc.) is 1.5 volts.
*The emf of a voltaic cell is 1 volt. 
*Voltage of a. torch cell -1.5 volt.
*Battery used in mobile phones - Lithium - ion battery (3.6 volt)



Electromagnetic Induction


*The process of production of voltage (emf) across a conductor moving through a magnetic
field is called electromagnetic induction.
*Generators (Dynamo), Motors, Transformers, Microphones, Induction coil and Solenoids work on the principle of Faraday’s law of electro magnetic induction.



Mutual Induction


*Phenomenon of inducing a voltage (emf) in a coil by changing current in neighbouring coil is known as Mutual Induction.
*The coil in which voltage is induced is called secondary coil
*The coil in which current is changed is called Primary Coil.
*Instruments work on the principle of mutual induction - Transformers, Generators etc.
*Electric device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy - Electric generator.



Lamps


*Incandescent lamps are filament lamps (Bulbs).
*Electric Bulb was discovered by 
Ans : Thomas Alva Edison.
*Gas used to fill a filament lamp 
Ans : Argon, Nitrogen etc.
*Lamp having highest energy efficiency
Ans :  LED ' Lamp .
*In Fluorescent lamp, mixture of Mercury and Argon gas are filled.
*Examples of discharge lamps - Compact Fluorescent lamp (CFL), Tube lights, Vapour lamps
* Lifespan of filament lamp - 1000 hours ‘
*Lifespan of fluorescent lamps - 5000 hours
*Lamps used in advertisement boards - Neon vapour lamps
*The material used for making filament of bulb is Tungsten (W).
*Characterstics of LED, when compared to other lamps are energy efficient, low cost, longer life time, small size.
*Energy efficient means low consumption of energy.
*Nickel and Cadmium are used as electrodes in rechargable batteries of electric shaver, flash lights etc.
*Polygraph test machine detects and records the electrical variations in the body when a person tells lies.
*Electricity produced through water is termed as ‘Hydro Power’.
*Hydroelectric power is an electrical energy obtained from water-power which is used to drive a dynamo.
*National Energy Conservation Day?
Ans : December 14
*The purpose of Choke in the tube light is 
Ans : to increase the voltage momentarily



Vapour Lamps & Colours


*Chlorine Vapour Lamp -Green
*Nitrogen - Red
*Hydrogen - Blue
*Sodium - Yellow
*Neon - range
*Mercury - White



ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION


*The study of the behaviour of electrons, their control and use is known as Electronics.
*An electronic device which has the semiconducting property that allows current to flow in one direction only -Diode
*The simplest form of a vacuum tube is diode.
*The emission of electrons from a strongly heated surface is called Thermionic emission.
*Vacuum tubes or valves work on the principle of - Thermionic emission.
*A thermionic valve having three electrodes namely cathode, anode and grid is known as Triode.
*Now-a-days thermionic valves are completely  replaced by Transistors
*Wonder Baby of Electronics - Transistor
*Semiconductor device used to amplify or
*switch electronic signals and electrical power -Transistor
*Transistor was invented by John Bardeen, W.H. Brattain, and William Shockley.
*Triode was invented by Lee De Forest.
*The concept of radio transmission was first demonstrated by the famous Indian scientist
Ans : J.C. Bose 



Semiconductors


*Material whose conductivity falls between conductor and insulator 
Ans : Semiconductor
*Semi conductors in their pure state are called intrinsic semiconductors
*In intrinsic semicdnductors, number of holes is equal to number of electrons.
*The process of adding controlled impurities to a pure semiconductor is known as doping.
*The impurities which change its electrical property are called dopants.
*Examples for dopants - arsenic, gallium
*Doping improves the conductivity of a semi conductor.
*An intrinsic semiconductor doped with impurity is known as extrinsic semh conductor.
*Extrinsic semiconductors are of two types :
1.N- type semiconductor
2.P-type semiconductor
*The charge carriers in N-type semiconductor
Ans : Free electrons
*The charge carriers in P-type semiconductors
Ans : Holes.
*Semi conductors are used in Photovoltaic cells (solar cells), diodes, transistors and integrated circuits (IQ.
*Diode is mostly used to convert AC to DC. So a diode functions as a rectifier.
*Zener dioide is used as a voltage regulator device which maintains a constant voltage.
*ELINT is the Electronic Intelligence.
*Semiconductors which can be used in Solar cells 
Ans : Silicon.
*A very large number of components like diodes, transistors, condensers of capacitors and resistors are incorporated in a single chip.
*A device used to store electric charge consisting of one or more pairs of conductor separated by an insulator  
Ans : Capacitor



IC Chip


*IC is an electronic circuit on semiconductor chip.
*IC is made of germanium or silicon.
*IC chips using Germanium was invented by 
Ans : Jack Kilby
*IC chip using silicon was invented by 
Ans : Robert Noyce



LIGHT


*Study of light - Optics
*Speed of light - 3 X 108 m/s
*Time taken by Sun light to reach earth
Ans : 8 minute 20 seconds (500 Seconds) 
*Time taken by moonlight to reach earth 
Ans : 1.3 seconds
*Light travels fastest in 
Ans : Vacuum
*The medium in which density of light isminimum 
Ans : Vacuum
*What tefpens to velocity of light asit travels from , a denser medium to rarer medium
Ans :  Increases 
*Light is a transverse wave.
*Unit of wavelength of light
Ans : Angstrom 
*Speed of Light Was first measured by 
Ans : Ole Christian Romer 
*The medium in which the speed of light is least
Ans : Diamond
*The medium in which density of light is maximum 
Ans :  Diamond
*Particle which travels faster than light-
Ans : Tachyons
*Tachyons were discovered by-
Ans : ECGSudarsan
*The Scientist who proved that light is an electro magnetic wave 
Ans : Henrich Hertz
*Order of speed of light in different medium is - glass < water < air < vacuum
*Substance which do not pass light through them are called
Ans : Opaque substances
eg:- Cardboard, stone
*Substance which allow light to pass through them 
Ans : Transparent substances
eg:- glass
*Substance which allow a part of incident light to pass through them - Translucent substances
eg:- oil paper
*Rainbow is always formed in the opposite direction of sun
*The direction in which the rainbow is formed in morning
Ans : West



Light Year


*The distance travelled by light in one year
Ans : Light Year
*Unit used to measure the largest distance between stars
Ans : Light Year
*L light year
Ans : 9.46*10^12Km
*I Parsec 
Ans : 3.26 light year
*The distance from sun to the nearest star 
Ans : 4 1/2 light year



Photoelectric effect


*The phenomenon of emission of electrons from a metal surface coated by sodium or potassium when light rays falls on it is called 
Ans : photoelectric effect. 
*Photoelectric effect was proposed by 
 Ans : Henrich Hertz.
*Photoelectric effect was explained by 
Ans : Albert Einstein.
*The law of photo electric effect was formulated by 
Ans : Albert Einstein
*Albert Eienstein won the Nobel prize in 1921 for the scientific explanation of photo electric effect.
*Einstein explained the photo electric effect on the basis of quantum theory 
*The phenomenon, photo electric effect cannot be explained on the basis of electro magnetic theory.
*The colour of sky in moon
Ans : Black 
*When a red flower is observed through blue glass plate, it appears,as 
Ans : Black 
*Colour of green leaf in red light 
Ans : Black 
*Colour which is very sensitive to human eye 
Ans : Yellow
*Colour which is used in danger signals 
Ans : Red (Because it has longest wavelength) 
*Colours used in scientific laboratory for indicating danger
Ans : Yellow 
*The colour used in fog lamp of vehicles 
Ans : Yellow Light



Quantum Theory


*Quantum theory was put forwarded by Max Planck.
*Quantum theory states that the light rays consist of small energy packets called quantum.
*According to quantum theory, quantum of , light is known as a photon.
*Phenomenon of emission of light from substances after the absorbtion of photons is called Photoluminescence.



Must Read


*Colour having minimum wavelength
Ans : Violet
* Colour having maximum wavelength
Ans : Red
*Colour having minimum frequency
Ans : Red
*Colour having maximum frequency
Ans : Violet
*Light that scatters most
Ans : Violet
*Light that scatters least 
Ans : Red
*The colour which reflects all other colours
Ans : White
*The colour which absorbs all other colours
Ans : Black
*The colour which absorbs maximum heat
Ans  : Black
*The colour which absorbs minimum heat
Ans : White
*The colour which appears on the upper portion of the rainbow 
Ans : Red
*The colour which appears on the lowest portion of rainbow
Ans : Violet
*Number of colours in visible light
Ans :  7 (VIBGYOR - Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red)
*Primary Colours 
Ans :  Red, Blue, Green 
*Secondary Colours
Ans : Yellow, Magenta, Cyan 
*Primary colours used in colour television Red, Blue, Green
*Primary colour pigments used in printing 
Ans : Yellow, Magenta, Cyan 
*Colours obtained by mixing any two primary colours
Ans : Secondary Colours
*Green  Red -> Yellow
*Blue  Red  -> Magenta
*Green  Blue  -> Cyan
*Any two colours which combine together to form white colour is called as Complementary colours 
*Complementary Colours
*Green  Magenta ll White
*Red  Cyan ->White
*Blue  Yellow  ->White 
*Combining three primaiy colours Red, Blue and Green, we get - White ie, RedBlueGreen -» White
*The distance between Sun and Earth is generally expressed in 
Ans : Astronomical Unit 
*Wavelength of visible light 
Ans : 400 - 700  nanometer
*‘Blue colour of the Sky’ was explained by 
Ans : Lord Rayleigh
*‘Blue Colour of the Sea’ was explained by Sir. 
Ans : C.V. Raman
*Photo Electric effect was discovered by 
Ans : Henrich Hertz
*Photo Electric effect was explained by 
Ans : Albert Einstein



Discoveries


*Corpuscular theory of Light was proposed by 
Ans : Isaac Newton
*Wave theory of Light was proposed by
Ans : Christian Huygens
*Scientist who discovered that Sunlight consists of 7 Colours
Ans : Isaac Newton
*Scientist who discovered that ‘The light travels fastest in Vacuum’
Ans : Leon Foucault
*The principle of Three Primary Colours was proposed by 
Ans : Thomas Young
*The Scientist who discovered that constituent colours join together to form composite light 
Ans : Isaac Newton
*Electromagnetic wave theory was formulated by 
Ans :  James Clerk Maxwell'
*First accurate measurment of speed of light was made by 
Ans :  Ole Christian Romer
*Scientist who proved that light is an electro magnetic wave 
Ans : Henrich Hertz
*Tachyon is the particle which is supposed to travel fester than light and was discovered by an Indian Scientist
Ans : E.C.G. Sudharshan
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