*The study of celestial bodies and the universe) Ans : Astronomy *Father of modern Astronomy Ans : Copernicus *Heliocentric theory was put forward by Ans : Nicolaus Copernicus *Solar system was discovered by Ans : Nicolaus Copernicus *Geocentric Theory of Earth was put forward by Ans : Cladius Ptolemy (Astronomer&Astrologer) *The first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth Ans : Eratosthenes (Astronomer and Geographer) *The line used to define the boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space Karman Line (Line named after Theodore- Von-Karman) *The astronomist known as ‘Law giver of the heavens’ Ans : Johannes Kepler *The laws of planetary motion are discovered by Ans : Johannes Kepler *Chandrasekhar limit is a limiting mass below which a star becomes a white dwarf Chandrasekhar limit = 1.4 times the mass of the sun. *Kepler discovered that planets travel in orbits which are elliptical.
*A galaxy is a group of millions of stars. *The word‘Galaxy’was derived from the greek word Ans : Galaxias (Meaning - Milky circle) *The word ‘Galaxy’ was first used by Ans : William Hershel *Solar system is included in the galaxy Ans : Milky way *The number of stars in the milky way galaxy is known as Ans : Constellation *The largest constellation in the milky way Ans : Hydra *Smallest constellation in the milky way Ans : Crur *The attractive force by which galaxies are held together Ans : Gravitational force *The star nearest to the earth Ans : Sun *The star nearest to the sun Ans : Proxima centauri (It is a Red dwarf) *The biggest star in the milky way. Ans : U Y Scuti *The brightest star in the night sky Ans : Sirius (Dog star) *The brightness of the stars indicates its Ans : Temperature
Book & Authors
*‘Almagest’ - Ptolemy *Geography, Hermes Ans : Eratosthenes *The Universe in a Nutshell Black Holes and Baby Universes, A brief History of Time, My Brief History Ans : Stephen Hawking *Aryabhativa,Arya Sidharta Ans : Aryabhatta *Harmonies of the Worlds Ans : Johnnes Kepler *Pancha Siddhantika Ans : Varahamihira
The universe is an endless space having number of galaxies,stars,nebulae and other celestical bodies. Ans : Theories of origin of universe
*The Big Bang theory is the most widely accepted theory regarding the origin of the universe. *According to this theory, the universe originated from a tiny hot body with a giant explosion and it expanded rapidly. This rapid expansion caused the universe to cool and resulted in its present stage. *Still it is expanding *The Big Bang occurred approximately 13.75 billion years ago. *The Big Bang Theory is also called as the expanding universe hypothesis. It was origmdly proposedby George Lemaitre, but George Gamow, Ralph Alpher and Hans Bethe’s also proposed the theory. It was modified by Edwin Hubble and others.
The Steady State theory
*he Steady State theory was developed by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold and Hermann Bondi in 1948. *It is an alternative to the Big Bang theory *According to the Steady State theory new matter is being continuously created as the universe expands. It also asserts that although the universe is expanding, it nevertheless does not change its appearance over time. *It has no beginning and no end. *Quasi Steady State theory was proposed by Jayant. V Narlikar, Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey Burbidge
The Pulsating theory
*According to this theory, the expansion of the universe may stop by the gravitational *The alternate expansion and contraction of the universe give rise to pulsating. *Dr. Allan Sandage proposed this theory.
*The study of the structure of the universe Ans : Cosmology *The study of life in outer space Ans : Exobiology *The study of Moon Ans : Selenology *The study of space crafts Ans : Astronautics *The study of chemical composition and physical propertices of celestial bodies Ans : Astrophysics
*A bright streak of light in the sky Ans : Meteors *Meteors are also known as Shooting star/ Falling star *Meteors may bum up or fall on earth in the form of dust or fragments called Meteroites
*The mixture of ices (both water & frozen gases) and dust revolve around the sun in elongated orbits Ans : Comet *The first astronomer who discovered the proper motion of stars and periodicity of comets Ans : Halley *Halley’s comet is seen in every 76 years *It was last seen in 1986. It will reappear in 2062. *The tail of comets appear due to the phenomenon Ans : Tyndall effect
*The irregular objects mostly found between the orbit of Jupiter and Mars Ans : Asteroids *The first discovered Asteroid Ans : Ceres *The biggest Asteroid in the solar system was Ans : Ceres
*The centre of the solar system Ans : Sun (it is the largest body in the solar system) *The time taken by the solar system to make a rotation around the milky way Ans : Cosmic Year (1 Cosmic year - 25 crore years) *The age of the sun Ans : approximately 460 million years *The most abundant element in the solar system Ans : Hydrogen *The heat and light in the sun is formed by the process of Ans : Nuclear Fusion *Heat and light from the sun reaches Earth by Ans : Radiation *Sunburn is due to the radiation of Ans : Ultraviolet *The time taken by the sunlight to reach the earth Ans : 500 seconds (8 Minute 20 Seconds) *The layers of sun Ans : Core, Photosphere, Chromosphere and Corona *The temperature of the core Ans : 15 million C
*The distance between the sun and planets are measured by Ans : Astronomical Unit (A.U.) *Astronomical unit Ans : The approximate distance between earth and sun (15 crore km) *The unit to measure the distance between stars Ans : light year (It is the distance of the light travels in one year at a speed of 3,00,000 km/sec) *The unit to measure the distance between two galaxies Ans : Parsec (One Parsec = 3.26 light year) *The glowing surface of the sun Ans : Photosphere (it is the lower atmosphere of the sun) *The visible part of the sun Ans : Photosphere (it emits light at visible wave lengths) *The comparatively cool regions on the photosphere Ans : Sunspots *The outer layer of the sun Ans : Corona (It experience the temperature about one million °C) *Sun exists in - Plasma state *The magnetic field of the sun Ans : Magnetosphere (Heliosphere) (147.1 million km) *The earth is closest to the sun on Ans : 3rd January (Perihelion) (152.6 million km) *The earth is farthest away from sun on Ans : 4th JuIy(Aphelion) *The international organisation naming celestial bodies - International Astronomical Union *Solar eclipse occurs at Ans : New Moon (It happens when the moon comes between the earth and sun) *The only part of the sun visible during total solar eclipse Ans : Corona
*The planets are the celestial bodies revolving around the sun. *The definite path along with the planets revolve around the sun Ans : Orbit *Orbits of the planets around the sun are Ans : Elliptical *There are 8 known planets in the solar system Ans : Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune *The greek word ‘Planet' means ‘wandering star'. *Inner (Terrestrial) planets Ans : Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars *Earth is the largest of inner planets. *Outer planets have lower densities compared to that of inner planets, *Outer plants - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune *Morning star -Venus *Evening star -Venus *Brightest planet -Venus *Pet of the Sun -Venus *Twin planet of the Earth -Venus *Red planet -Mars *Blue planet -Earth *Green planet -Uranus *Rolling planet -Uranus *Lying planet -Uranus *Father sky -Uranus *Windy planet-Nepture *Golden Giant-Saturn *Speedy messenger-Mercury *Largest planet - Jupiter *Smallest planet - Mercury *Hottest planet - Venus *Coldest planet - Neptune *Fastest rotating planet - Jupiter *Slowest rotating planet - Venus *Fastest revolving planet - Mercury *Slowest revolving planet - Neptune *Farthest planet to the sun - Neptune Closest planet to the sun-Mercury *Planet with highest density - Earth *Planet with lowest density - Saturn *Planet with longest day - Venus *Planet with shortest day - Jupiter *Highest escape velocity - Jupiter *Lowest escape velocity - Mercury *Planet with highest weight - Jupiter *Planet with lowest weight - Saturn
*Period of Revolution-88 days *Period of Rotation -58 days *The planet which is known as ‘ Roman God of Messenger’ Ans : Mercury *Smallest planet Ans : Mercury *The planet nearest to the sun Ans : Mercury *The fastest revolving planet Ans : Mercury *The first space craft to reach Mercury Ans : Mariner 10 (USA, 1973)' *The planet without atmosphere due to low escape velocity and high temperature Ans : Mercury *The most cratered planet in solar system Ans : Mercury *The planet which is known as ‘‘will -O- the wisp” Ans : Mercury *Second hottest and second densest body in solar system Ans : Mercury
*Period of Revolution- 224.7 days *Period of Rotation - 243 days *Venus is the roman goddess of love/beauty *The second nearest planet from the sun Ans : Venus *The planet nearest to the earth Ans : Venus *The hottest planet Ans : Venus (462°C) *First person to identify that the morning star and the evening star was the same Venus Ans : Pythagores *The planet’s orbit which is most nearly circular of that of any other planet Ans : Venus *The only planet that rotates from east to west Ans : Venus (Sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west) *The planet takes more time to complete one rotation than revolution Ans : Venus *The major gas present in Venus atmosphere Ans : Carbon dioxide *The planet with the longest day length Ans : Venus *The highest mountain ranges in Venus. Ans : Maxwell Mount *The first space craft sent to Venus Ans : Mariner - 2 (USA, 1962) *The first spacecraft to land on Venus Ans : Venera-7 *The first orbiter which produced detailed maps of Venus using radar Ans : Magellan (USA) *The planet which reflects about 70% sunlight striking it Ans : Venus *The second brightest object in the night sky after moon Ans : Venus *Because of the name “the morning star”, Venus is sometimes called as Ans : Lucifer
*The first space Telescope Ans : Hubble Space Telescope. *The space shuttle ‘Discovery’ placed the Hubble space Telescope in the space in 1990. *The Hubble Space Telescope was launched by NASA to take pictures of outer space. Telescope was invented by Ans : Hans Lippershey (1608) *Telescope was first used by Ans : Galileo (1609) *Chandra X-ray observatory was launched by NASA in Ans : 1999 *The observatory was named after Dr. S. Chandrashekhar,Indian-American Physicist *Asia’s largest and first of its kind optical telescope Ans : ARIES (Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (Uttarakhand) *The Aries telescope is a joint international effort between Indian, Russian and Belgian Scientist.
*Period of Revolution -365 days,5 hours,48 minutes,45.51 seconds *Period of Rotation -23 hours,56 minutes 4.09 seconds *The largest inner planet Ans : Earth *The most densest planet Ans : Earth *The planet known as “blue planet” -Earth (because Earth looks blue from space) *The only planet in the solar system that is known to have life. *The only natural satellite of Earth - Moon *The fifth largest natural satellite in the solar system Ans : Moon *The age of Earth is approximately Ans : 460 crore years *The shape of the Earth Ans : Geoid (Oblate Spheroid) *The escape velocity of Earth Ans : 11.2 km/sec. *The earth day is observed on Ans : 22nd April
*Earth’s natural satellite Ans : Moon *The 5th largest satellite in our solar system Ans : Moon *Over 59% of the Moon’s surface is directly visible from Earth *Moon light reaches Earth in Ans : 1.3 seconds *The second full moon in a month Ans : Blue Moon *Lunar eclipse occurs at Ans : Full Moon (It happens when the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun) *One can see both the setting sun and the rising moon, on a full moon day. *The celestial body that bear the name ‘The Sea of Tranquility’ and ‘the Ocean of Storms’ Ans : Moon *The dark plain on the moon is called the lunar seas. *The first man made structure visible from the moon Ans : Great wall of China *The metal abundantly found in the moon Ans : Titanium *The first space craft to reach the surface of the moon Ans : Luna 2 (Russia) *The first spacecraft to orbit the moon successfully Ans : Luna 10 (Russia)
Man towards Mars
*NASA’s new space craft built to take human farther into space than they have ever gone before Ans : Orion *The first test fright of Orion EFT-1, the multipurpose crew vehicle took place on *5th December 2014.
*The, first space tourist in the world Ans : Dennis Tito (America) *The first woman space tourist in the world Ans : Anousheh Ansari (Iranian Origin)
List of Space Tourists
Year Space tourists Nationality *2001 -Dennis Tito -America *2002 -Mark Shuttle Worth- South Africa *2005 -Gregory Olsen -America *2006 -Anousheh Ansari -Iranian origin/ American Citizen *2007 -Charles Simonyi -Hungaria *2008 -Richard Garriott -Britain/America *2009 -Guy Laliberte -Canada *The first astronaut to land on the Moon Ans : Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin (20th July 1969, Apollo-II) *The small vehicle which was used to land on the Moon by Neil Amstrong and Edwin Aldrin Ans : Eagle *The last astronaut'to land on the Moon Ans : Eugene Cernan (1972) *Mass of the Moon is l/6th Mass of earth
*Period of Revolution -687 days *Period of Rotation-24 hours 37 minutes 22.63 seconds *Mars is the Roman god of war *The planet knowns as 'Fossil Planet' and 'Rusty Planet',Red Planet' due to the presence of iron oxides Ans : Mars *The two satellites of Mars Ans : Phobos,Deimos *Olympus Mons: The highest volcanic mountain in the Mars rising 27km above the plain is in Mars. *Tharsis: Is an extensive volcanic province on Mars that contains three of the planet’s most massive volcanoes *Valles Marineris : a system of Canyons that runs along the surface of Mars. *Hellas Planitia: an impact crater in the *The smallest satellite in the solar system Ans : Deimos *The satellite also known as “black moon” Ans : Phobos *Phobos and deimos are discovered by Ans : Asaph Hall (1877) *The first successful fly-by of Mars Ans : Mariner - 4 (1965) *First space probe to orbit another planet (When it entered into orbit around Mars) Ans : Mariner 9 (Nov 14, 1971) *The first space craft to land on the surface of Mars Ans : Viking - 1 (USA,launched on 20th August 1975) *The spacecraft of NASA to Mars launched on 4th December 1996 and landed on the surface of Mars on 4th July 1997 Ans : Path Finder *The first robot, that landed on the martian surface and explored Mars Ans : Sojourner *The robotic spacecraft landed on Mars to search for water Ans : Phoenix *The Carl Sagan Memorial station situated in the planet Ans : Mars *The space probe sent to Mars by NASA on November 2013 to study the upper atmosphere of Mars Ans : MAVEN (Mars atmosphere and volatile evolution) *The atmospheric research orbiter built in collaboration between European Space Agency and Russia, launched on 19 October 2016 to gain a better understanding of methane and other trace gases in Martian atmosphere Trace Gas Orbiter *Atomic oxygen is found in the atmosphere of Mars
Seven minutes of terror
*Curiosity, a robotic rover launched by NASA on Ans : 26th November 2011 *Curiosity landed safely on the Mars on Ans : 6th August 2012 (Indian time) *Curiosity landed in ‘Gale Crater’ in Mars *The Landing of curiosity is known as “Seven minutes of terror”. *Curiosity is the fourth space craft to send to the Mars.
(Mars Orbiter Mission - MoM) *India’s first interplanetary mission Ans : Mangalyaan *First Mars mission of ISRO Ans : Mangalyaan *World’s least expensive mission to Mars Ans : Mangalyaan (450 crore) *The first nation to reach Mars orbit on its first attempt Ans : India *The first Asian country to launch space craft to Mars Ans : India (The 4th nation in the world) *The other three countries that launched spacecraft to Mars before India Ans : Russia, USA, European Union *The official name of Mangalyaan project Ans : Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) *Mangalyaan was manufactured by Indian Space Research Organisation Satellite Centre (ISAC). Ans : Mangalyaan was launched on Ans : 5th November 2013 (at Sathish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota) *The vehicle that launched Mangalyaan into Mars Orbit Ans : PSLV C - 25 *The launch mass of Mangalyaan Ans : 1337 kg *Mangalyaan reached the Mars orbit on Ans : 24th September 2014 *The total distance covered by Mangalyaan breach the orbit Ans : 66.6 crore km *The important instruments in Mangalyaan Ans : Methane Sensor, Colour Camera *The country which, supported India during Mars Orbiter Mission Ans : Fiji. *The Director of Mangalyaan mission Ans : P. Kunhikrishnan *The project director of Mangalyaan Ans : S. Arunan *The ISRO chairman at the time of Mangalyaan launching Ans : K. Radhakrishnan *Cassini-Huygens Mission,a joint project of NASA and Europen Space Agency (ESA),was lanuched in 1997 to study Saturn,Cassini is the fourth space probe to visit Saturn and the first to enter orbit. Since 2004 Cassini has been orbiting the Saturn. * Huygens was separated from the Cassini orbiter and landed on Titan on January 14, 2005.
*Period of Revolution -12 years *Period of Rotation - 9 hours, 50 minutes,30 seconds *The largest planet in the solar system Ans : Jupiter *The planet known as Jovian planet Ans : Jupiter *The planet with most number of satellites Ans : Jupiter (around 67 satellites) *The largest satellite in our solar system Ans : Ganymede (Satellite of Jupiter) *The satellite with most number of volcanoes Ans : Io *Jupiter and its satellites are collectively known as Ans : Mini Solar system *Great red spot is seen in Ans : Jupiter *The fastest rotating planet Ans : Jupiter *The planet with shortest day and shortest night Ans : Jupiter *Jupiter is 11 times bigger than Earth. *The time taken by Jupiter to make one revolution around the sun Ans : 12 Earth years *The planet with strongest magnetic field and gravitational force Ans : Jupiter *On jupiter, objects experiences more weight. *In July 1994, comet shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with Ans : Jupiter *The mission launched by NASA to study on Jupiter Ans : Juno
*period of Revolution -30 years *period of Rotadon-10 hours, 14 minutes *The second largest planet in the solar system Ans : Saturn *The planet named after the God of agriculture in Roman mythology Ans : Saturn *The planet with the second highest number of satellites Ans : Saturn (around 62 satellites)
Cape Kennedy of India
*India's only satellite launching station Ans : Satish Dhawan Space Centre *Satish Dhawan Space Centre is situated in Ans : Sriharikota (Andhra Pradesh). *It is known as ‘Cape Kennedy of India’. *India’s spaceport Ans : Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota *The planet that gives off more energy than it receives from the sun Ans:Saturn The planet having most extensive rings in the solar system *Saturn The planet with least density Ans:Saturn (It’s density is less than water) *The only planet that could float in water Ans:Saturn *Titan was discovered by Ans:Christian Huygens (1655) *The biggest satellite of Saturn Ans:Titan *The only satellite in the solar system with atmosphere of its own - Titan *The second largest satellite in the solar system Ans:Titan *The important satellites of Saturn Ans:Titan, promithuse, Atlas, Helan Pindora Riya, Thethis etc. *The Jewel of the . solar system Ans:Saturn *The satellites of Saturn are named after the Greek mythical characters. Ans:Uranus
*Period of Revolution-84 years *Period of Rotation -17 hours,12 minutes *Uranus was discovered by Ans : William Hershel (1781) *The major gas present in the Uranus atmosphere Ans : Methane (Due to the presence of methane Uranus appears in green - blue colour) *The planet known as ‘Rolling planet’ or ‘Lying planet’ Ans : Uranus *The planet referred to as ‘ice giant’ Ans : Uranus *The satellites of which planet is named after characters created by William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope Ans : Uranus *The important satellites of Uranus Ans : Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Miranda *The first planet discovered with the use of a telescope Ans : Uranus
*Period of Revolution -165 years *Period of Rotation -16 hours,6 minutes *The farthest planet from the sun Ans:Neptune *The coldest and slowest revolving planet Ans:Neptune *In Roman mythology, Neptune is the Ans:‘God of the Sea’ *The planet that take maximum time for revolution Ans:Neptune *The planet which has the longest year Ans:Neptune *The largest satellite of Neptune that revolve around the mother planet in opposite direction Ans : Triton *Great dark spot is seen in Ans : Neptune *The planet in which wind, flows fastly Ans : Neptune *The three rings of Neptune are named as Ans : Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
*In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) created a new classification category, for the objects in the solar system called ‘Dwarf Planets’. *IAU recognised five dwarf planets in our solar system they are Eris, Pluto, Ceres, ‘Makemake and Haumea’
*The second largest dwarf planet - Eris (It is 70 miles wider than Pluto in solar system. It revolves around sun beyond Pluto) *Eris was initially named as - 2003 UB 313 *Eris was discovered by - Mike Brown (2005) Pluto
*The largest dwarf planet - Pluto (Pluto was expelled from the group of planets in the scientific meeting at Prague in Czeck Republic on 24th August 2006) *Pluto was discovered by Ans : Clyde Tombaugh (1930) *The revolutionary period of pluto Ans : 248 years *Five known moons of pluto Ans : Charon, Hydra, Nix, Kerberos and Styx
*Ceres was discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi *Only dwarf planet in the inner solar system Ans : Ceres *The smallest dwarf planet Ans : Ceres *NASA’s space craft launched in 2007 to study about ceres Ans : Dawn *Only dwarf planet with no moons Ans : Ceres *The dwarf planet discovered in 2005. *It is one of the largest Kuiper Belt Object. (KBO)
*It is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune’s orbit discovered in 2004. *Third closest dwarf planet to the sun.
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