Information Technology & Cyber Laws 3

First in Internet

*First Malayalam newspaper started its internet edition
Ans : Deepika 
*The first Indian state which provided email facility to all of its Government offices 
Ans : Goa
*First state which started its online lottery 
Ans : Sikkim
*First state in India with all of its Panchayats computerized 
Ans : Tamilnadu
*First paperless government office in India 
Ans : IT Mission
*The first bank, started its Malayalam website 
Ans :  SBT 
*First University started its Online courses 
Ans : Andhra Pradesh
*First hospital in India which used robot to conduct an operation 
*First pollution free computerized petrol pump of India is in 
Ans : Mumbai
*First Indian political party which has created its website on internet 
Ans : Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
*First computer literate corporation in Kerala
Ans : Kozhikode
* First computer literate gramapanchayat in Kerala 
Ans : Chamravattam (Malappuram)
*First e-literate panchayat in Kerala 
Ans : Pallichal (Thiruvananthapuram)
*First fully computerized panchayat in Kerala 
Ans : Vellanad
*First e-payment Gramapanchayat in India
Ans : Manjeswaram
*First computerized collectorate
Ans : Palakkad
*First computerized Taluk Office in India
Ans : Ottappalam
*Element which is used to make  computer chips
Ans : Silicon


10^12 - Tera - T
10^9 - Giga - G
10^6 - Mega - M
10^3 - Kilo - K
10^2 - Hecto - h
10^1 - Deca - da
10^-1 - Deci  - d
10^-2 - Centi - C
10^-3 - Milli - m
10^-6 - Micro 
10^-9 - Nano - n
10^- 12 - Pico - P


*Buffer is a temporary storage area in the memory (usually RAM) 
*Buffering means preloading of data into a reserved area of memory.

Artificial intelligence
*Father of Artificial intelligence-
Ans : John Me Carthy
*Characteristics of 5th generation
Ans : Artificial Intelligence 
* Languages used in artificial Intelligence


*Simputer is a GNU/Linux based hand held computer (first released in 2002)
*SIMPUTER - Simple Inexpensive and Multilingual People’s Computer”.
*Simputer was invented by - Vinay Desh Pandey

Akshaya Project

*First district wide e- literacy project in India 
Ans : Akshaya Project
*Akshaya project extented to all district in 
Ans : 2008 
*Computer literacy project implemented in Kerala
Ans : Akshaya Project
*Akshaya project was first started in the district
Ans : Malappuram
*The Panchayat in which Akshaya project was first established in Kerala 
Ans : Pallikkal (Malappuram)
*Brand Ambassador of Akshaya Project
Ans : Mammootty

EULA - End User License Agreement

*EULA gives permission to use the software and grants some additional , rights.
*It includes the ‘Grant of License’section, which describes how may use the software.


*First I.T.park in India 
Ans : Technopark
*Largest I.T Park in India 
Ans : Technopark
*Technopark is situated in 
Ans : Kazhakuttom (Thiruvananthapuram) 
* Technopark was launched on
Ans : 28th July 1990
*Present CEO of Technopark
Ans : Hrishikesh Nair
*First Chairman of Technopark
Ans : K.P.P. Nambiar
*First privatized IT park in Kerala 
Ans : Muthoot Technopolis
*The founder and first chairman of Keltron  
Ans : K.P.P. Nambiar
Ans : KSEDC (Kerala State  Electronics Development Corporation)
*First district in India with high speed rural broadband connectivity 
Ans : Idukki
*India’s first digital  village launched by ICICI bank is at 
Ans : Akodara (Gujarat)


*WikiLeaks is an international, non-r profit, journalistic organization. 
*WikiLeaks publishes secret information, news leaks and classified media from anonymous sources.
*Founder of WikiLeaks 
Ans : Julian Assange 
*WikiLeaks founded in the year
Ans : 2006 (Iceland)
*Slogan of WikiLeaks 
Ans : ‘We open governments’
*Smaller Version of image is called 
Ans : Thumbnail


*World Wide Web (www) - Tim Berners Lee 
*Microsoft - Bill Gates, Paul Allen
*Google - Larry page and Sergey Brin
*Face book - Mark Zuckerberg 
*Twitter - Jack Dorsey
*Orkut - Orkut Buyukkokten 
*Wikipedia - Jimmy Wales,Larry Sanger 
*Wikileaks - Julian Assange 
*Yahoo - Jerri Yang and David Filo
*E-mail - Ray Tomlinson
*G-mail - Paul Buchhiet
*Hotmail - Sabeer Bhatia, Jack Smith
*Youtube - Stevechen, Chad Hurley, jawed Karim
*Apple - Ronald Wayne, Steve Wozniak,Steve Jobs
*Whatsapp - Jan Koum Brian Acton Instagram - Kevin Systrom, Mike Krieger (Facebook)
*VICTORS was inagurated by 
Ans : A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (28th July 2005, Thiravananthapuram)
*IT, @ school program in Kerala was started in 
Ans : 2001
*Web portal developed by Kerala Govt, to provide help in agricultural field - e- krishi 
*e- Governance project of the govt, of Kerala which envisage computerizing local self government institution in Kerala 
Ans : Information Kerala Mission (IKM)
*Woman Known as human computer
Ans : Sakunthala Devi
*Famous books of Sakunthala Devi 
Ans : The Joy of Numbers, Puzzles to Puzzle You, Book of Numbers.

Books & Authors

*The Google Story-Mark Malseed 
*Imaging India
Ans : Nandan Nilekani 
*One night @ call center 
Ans : Chetan Bhagath 
*Passage from life of a philosopher 
Ans : Charles Babbage 
*Business @ the speed of thought 
Ans : Bill Gates
*A Better India, A Better World 
Ans : N.R.Narayana Moorthy 
*Visions, Values and Velocity 
Ans : Sam Pitroda
*Dreaming big: My Journey to Connect India 
Ans : Sam Pitroda
*World Computer Literacy Day 
Ans : December 2
PSC Recently Asked
*World Computer Security Day
Ans : November 30
*Wrold Telecommunication and Information society day 
Ans : May 17


*Mouse - Douglas .C.Engelbart
*Keyboard - Christopher Sholes
*Digital Compact Disc (CD) - James T. Russell 
*Digital Computer - Howard Aiken 
*Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) - Alan Shugart
*Laser printing - Gary Starkweather
*Simputer - Vinay Desh Pandey
*Camera Phone - Philip Kahn
*Computer chess - Citric G' Prince
*Pagemaker - Paul Brainard
*IRC(Internet Relay Chat) - Jarkko Oikarinen

Intel 4004

*The first Micro processor in the world 
Ans : Intel 4004
*Intel 4004 was developed by intel in the year 
Ans : 1971
*The first Micro processor was designed by 
Ans : Ted Hoff, Stanley Mazor & Federico Faggin


*Microsoft Office is a software package consisting of a set of application softwares. 
*MS Office Primarily consists of MIS Word, MS Excel, MS Access, MS Powerpoint and MS Outlook.
*Single page of a workbook is known as - Worksheet
*The basic storage unit of a spread sheet file is a table. 
*In a table, data is arranged in rows and columns.
*Intersection of a row and a column is called 
Ans : Cell
*Maximum number of worksheets which can be set as default while Creating a new workbook 
Ans : 225
*Total number of rows in a worksheet of Excel 2007
Ans : 1048576
*Total number of columns in a worksheet of Excel 2007 
Ans : 16384
* MS Word is used for word processing purposes.
*Files created in MS Word is known as
Ans : Document

MS Office 2007 extensions

* MS Word  - .docx 
* MS Excel - .xlsx   
* MS Powerpoint - .pptx 
* MS Access - .accdb 

Mail Merge 

*Mail merge feature is commonly associated with 
Ans : Word Processor 
*In mail merge operation, word is usually a 
Ans : client 
*MS Excel is an electronic spread sheet program.
*Files created in MS Excel is known as Workbook
*Text editor for Microsoft Windows Notepad
*MS Access is an application used for database purposes 
*MS Powerpoint is used for making computer based presentations with the help of picture slides.
*Files 'created in Powerpoint is known as - Presentation

General Keyboard Shortcuts

*CTRLC - Copy
*CTRLX - Cut 
*CTRLV - Paste
*CTRLP - Print
*CTRLY - Redo
*CTRLZ -  Undo
*CTRLA - Select All   
*CTRLH - Replace
*CTRLF - Find
*CTRLG - Go to
*CTRL  D - To Open font dialog box in MS Word
F5  - Refresh
AltF4 -  Exit
AltTab   - Switch between , minimized applications

Facts to  Remember

*First calculating device in the world
Ans : Abacus
*Abacus was invented in 
Ans : China
*Calculating tool Napier’s Bones was developed by John Napier
*First mechanical and automatic calculator
Ans : Pascaline
* First logarithmic table was introduced by
Ans : John Napier
*First data storage machine was invented by 
Ans : Herman Holerith 
*The first real mechanical calculating machine
Ans : Pascaline
*The person who invented Pascaline 
Ans : Blasie Pascal (1642)
*First mechanical ’adding machine was invented by 
Ans : Blaise Pascal
* The first successful difference Engine was made by 
Ana : Charles Babbage
* First analytical engine was invented by Charles Babbage
*The first electronic digital computer 
* ENIAC was developed by 
Ans : John Mauchly and Presper Eckert
* First computer used in business (commercial) applications 
Ans : UNIVAC - 1 
*First complete & fully operational regular electronic digital stored program computer is 
Ans : EDSAC (6th May 1949) (EDVAG conceived in 1945, but not delivered until August 1949) 
*First stored program computer designed was
*The first computer animated news reader 
Ans : ANANOVA (Russia)
*The first personl computer 
Ans : Altair 8800 
*First book about personal computer 
Ans : Computer liberation and Dream machine (written by: Ted Nelson)
*The first computer graphics used movie 
Ans :  TRON (1982)
*The first film which used the morphing
Ans : Willow
*First Digital computer 
Ans : Harvard Mark 1 (Howard Aiken)
*The first computer game 
Ans : Space-war
*The first E paper 
Ans :  The Thejith (from Belgium)
*The first computer magazine 
Ans : Computers & Automation (Edmund Berkely, 1950)


*USB stands for 
(a) Universal Serial Bus 
(b) Universal Synchronous Bus 
(c ) Unified Serial Bus 
(d) Ultra Speed Bus 
Ans : (a) Universal Serial Bus (Sales Asst. Gr.II2016)
*AI - Artificial Intelligence 
*ALGOL - Algorithmic Language 
*ANSI - American National Standard Institute 
*ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange 
*ARP - Address Resolution Protocol 
*BIT - Binary. Digit 
*BCD - Binary Coded Decimal 
*BPI - Bytes per Inch 
*BPS  - Bytes per second , 
*BCR - Bar Code Reader 
*CAT - Computer Aided Training 
*CAD - Computer Aided Design 
*CAM - Computer Aided Manufacturing 
*CD - Compact Disk 
*COBOL- Common Business Oriented Language 
*CU - Control Unit 
*CRT - Cathode Ray Tube Data Base
*DBMS - Data Base Management System
*DOS - Disk Operating System 
*DBA - Desk Top Publishing 
*DDL - Data Definition Language
*DML -Data  Manipulation Language
*EBCDIC -Extended Binary Coded
           - Decimal Interchange Code
*VDU - Visual Display Unit 
*E-mail - Electronic Mail 
*ECOM - Electronic Commerce
*ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator
*UNIVAC - Universal Automatic Computer
*EDP - Electronic Data Processing
*EDSAC - Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator
*EDVAC - Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
*EMS - Expanded Memory Specification
*ERNET - Education and Research Network
*EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
*FM - Frequency Modulation
*FMS - File Management System
*FSF - Free Software Foundations
*JFTP - File Transfer Protocol
*GUI - Graphical User Interface
*HLL - High Level Language
*HTML - Hyper Text Markup. Language
*HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
*IBM - International Business Machines Corporation
*JPEG - Joint Photographic Expert Group
*LLL- Low Level Language
*LCD - Liquid Crystal Display 
*URL - Uniform Resource Locator
*CGA - Color Graphics Adapter 
*VGA - Video Graphics Array
*MPEG - Motion Picture Expert Group
*MODEM - Modulator Demodulator
*MIS - Management Information System .
*NASSCOM - National Association of Software and Services Company
*ISP - Internet Service Provider
*ITU- International Telecommunication Union
*OMR - Optical Mark Reader
*OOP - Object Oriented Programming
*PC - Personal Computer
*VCD - Video CD
*VSNL - Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd .
*BASIC - Beginner’s All-Purpose
Symbolic Instruction Codfe
*BBS - Bulletin Board System
*ISO- International Standard Organisation
*BCC - Blind Carbon Copy
*POP - Post Office Protocol
*BIOS - Basic input/ Output System
*BMP - Bit Map
*IDN - Integrated Digital Network
*DNS - Domain Name System
*FORTRAN - Formula Translation -
*PDF' - Portable Document Format
*GPRS - General Packet Radio Service 
*GPS - Global Positioning System'
*GSM - Global System for Mobile.
*VLSI - Very Large Scale Integration
*ULSI - Ultra Large Scale Integration
*OCR - Optical Character Reader

*Touch screen is an input/output touch sensible display.
*Touch screen is sensitive to - Pressure 
*Touch screen technology is widely used in bank ATMs, mobile phones, tablet computer etc.
*Touch pad is a pointing device used in portable computers like laptops.
*Track ball is a stationary pointing device with a ball mechanism on top.
*Joy stick is a pointing device with a vertical stick mounted on a base
*Joy stick is used as an input device when playing computer games and in ultra sound scanners in medical field.
*Light pen is a pen shaped pointing device that can detect the presence of light
*CAD users use light pen to directly draw on the screen.
*It is used in railway and airline reservation counters and it also used by doctors and dentists
*Scanner is an input device which converts paper documents (images and printed text) into electronic format and transfers them to a computer.
*OCR converts a scanned image (bitmap) to usable word processing format for editing by analysing forlight and dark areas in order to identify each.alphabetic letter or digits.
*MICR is primarily used by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of cheques.
*Device which helps to watch TV on computer
Ans : TV tuner card
*Primary output device of a computer Monitor
*‘Black and White Monitor’ is known as- Monochrome Monitor Cathode Ray Tube 
(CRT) technology was used in older monitors.
*Modem monitors are typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel.
*Organic light emitting diode (OLED) monitors provide higher contrast and better angles than LCD.


*Printers before 1950 are known as 
Ans : Punch cards
*Fastest printer
Ans : Laser printer

Hard & Soft copy

*Printed copy of a document is known as 
Ans : Hard Copy.
*Non printed copy of a document is known as Soft Copy.
*Printers can be divided into two categories.
Ans : Impact printers,Non Impact Printers
*In impact printers printing heads touch on the paper.
*Examples of impact printers are  
*Dotmatrix printer  
*Drum printer
*Line printer 
*Chain printer
*Character printer 
*Daisy wheel printer.
*Printing heads of non impact printers do not touch on the paper.
*Laser printer is an example of non. impact printer. Laser printer uses a laser beam, toner and a drum.
*Laser printers are also called page printers as they print one page at a time.
*Inkjet printer is another example of non impact printer..
*The output resolution of a printer is measured in 
Ans : DPI (Dots Per Inch) 
*The output device commonly used for Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) application 
Ans : Plotter


*CPU controls; overall functioning of the computer.
*All the data processing is done inside CPU.
*CPU is known as the brain of the computer.
*Control unit is known as the Nerve centre of the computer.
*Three parts of the CPU are Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Control Unit
Memory Unit Arithmetic and Logic unit: ALU performs all arithmetical and logical operations. 
*Control Unit : Control unit controls and coordinates the functions of all units of a 
computer system
*Part of CPU which decode program instruction (That means, fetches instruction from memory) -Control Unit
*Memory Unit: It is used for the storage of data.
*Memory is mainly classified into Primary 
*Memory and Secondary Memory
*The term associated with processing speed of computer - MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second)

Sections of IT Act 2000

*Section 4 - Authentication of electronic records, legal sanctity to E-FIR 
*Section 5 - Legal recognition of digital signatures
*Section 6 - Use of electronic records and digital signatures in Government and its agencies.
*Section 7 - Retention of electronic records
*Section 8 -  Publication of rule, regulation etc in Electronic Gazette.
*Section 4 to 10 -  Electronic Governance 
*Section 11 - Attribution of electronic records 
*Section 12 - Acknowledgement of receipt
*Section 13 - Time and place of despatch and receipt of electronic records.
*Section 17 - Appointment of Controller and other Officers
*Section 18 - Functions of Controller
*Section 19 - Recognition of foreign Certifying Authorities
*Section 21 - The Licence to issue Digital Signature Certificates
*Section 44 - Penalty for failure to furnish information, return etc.
*Section 62  - Appeal to High Court
*Section 65 - Tampering with Computer System Document
*Section 66  -  Hacking 
*Section 66 B -  Receiving stolen computer or commimication device
*Section 66 C - Identity theft
*Section 66 D  -  Cheating by personation by using computer resources 
*Section 66 E - Violation of privacy
*Section 66 F - Acts of cyber terrorism
*Section 67 A - Publishing images containing sexually explicit act (Pornography)
*Section 67 B -  Child Pornography
*Section 73 - Penalty for publishing false digital signature

Software Piracy

*Unauthorized copying, reproduction, use or manufacture of product is called Software piracy

Password Sniffer

*It is a small program that monitor and retrieve the user name or password of network users during their login.

Cyber Stalking (e-stalking)

*Practice of using internet to harass or threaten some one
*This can be avoided by not disclosing any personal information, avoid sending photographs to strangers and chat friends, proper disconnection of internet after its use.

Extra Info

*Cyber stalking is also known as Cyber Bullying

Web Jacking

*Hacking of websites by password cracking and alteration of contents for fulfilling political objectives or for money.Web Jacking punishes the offender under IPC 383

Data Diddling

*Data Diddling is the unauthorized changing of data before or during their input to a computer system.
egs  Forgery, exchanging valid records with prepared replacement etc.

Identity theft

*Procurement of identifying information without permission and using it fraudulently to obtain goods and services is called identity theft.


*Process of unauthorized access of information system is known as 
Ans : Hacking 
*One who does hacking is called 
Ans :  Hacker 
*Hacker destroys, defects or alters the information in a computer resource.Hacking comes under section 66 of IT Act 2000
*Hackers are of different categories such as White Hat Hackers, Black Hat Hackers, Gray Hat Hackers
*White Hat hackers hack system for good reason.  
*They are also known as Ethical Hackers.
*Black Hat Hackers hack system for malicious reasons.
*Gray Hat Hackers hack system sometimes for good reason and sometimes for malicious reasons.
*Banking and credit card related crime, E-commerce and investment frauds, online sale of illegal articles, online gambling etc also comes under cyber crime.
*Unauthorized use of internet hours paid for by another person is known as theft of internet hours.
*A computer connects to the internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or Trojan horse and can be used for malicious tasks is called 
Ans : Zombie

Intellectual Property Right 

*Intellectual property refers to the creations of mind : Inventions, Literary and Artistic works etc.
*Intellectual property rights refers to the general term for the assignment of property rights through patents, copyrights and trademarks
*IPR (Intellectual Property Right) violations include trademark violations, computer source code theft, patent violation and software piracy. .
*Theme of World Intellectual Property Day (April 26) (WIPD) 2016 - Digital Creativity : Culture Reimagined
*Theme of World Intellectual Property Day 2017 - Innovation - Improving Lives
*Position of India in Intellectual Property Index 2017 - 43

Denial of Service

*A denial of service attack is an attack meant to shut down a machine or network, making it inaccessible to its intended users.
*In Cyber law terminology 'DOS'means 
Ans : Denial of Service

Example of denial of service attack

*Attempt to flood a network thereby Preventing legitimate network traffic
*Attemps to disrupt connections between two machines,there by preventing access to a Service
*Attempts to prevent a particular individual from accessing a service


*The person who defined the term ‘Computer Virus’ - Fred Cohen (1983)
*A virus is a computer program that candamage the operations of a computer system It usually harm the computer either by altering or deleting files
*VIRUS - Vital Information Resource Under Siege
*First computer virus 
Ans : Brain
*First computer virus for MS DOS 
Ans : Brain
*Brain virus was developed by 
Ans : Basit Farooq Alvi, Amjad Farooq Alvi 
*First virus affected in ARPANET (ancientform of internet) 
Ans : Creeper 
*First micro computer virus 
Ans : Elk cloner
*First virus affected personal computer 
Ans : Apple
*First mobile phone virus 
Ans : Cabir
*Virus program writing programmers
Ans : Vickser


*Digital Number Systems are the following
1.Decimal Number System
2.Binary Number System
3.Octal Number System
4.Hexa Decimal Number System
*Base of Decimal Number System
Ans : 10
*Digits used in decimal number system
Ans :  0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 (0-9)
*Base of Binary Number System 
Ans : 2
*Digits used in Binary Number System 
Ans :  0,1
*Total number of digits in binary system
Ans :  2
*Base of Octal Number System 
Ans :  8
*Numbers used in Octal Number System 
Ans :  0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 (0-7)
* Base of Hexa Decimal Number System -
Ans : 16
*Numbers used in Hexa Decimal Number System - 0-9 and A-F 
*Numbers used in Hexa Decimal Number System - 0-9 and A-F 








0                                  0000                       0                       0
1                                  0001                       1                       1
2                                  0010                       2                       2
3                                  0011                       3                       3
4                                  0100                       4                       4
5                                  0101                       5                       5
6                                  0110                       6                       6
7                                  0111                       7                       7
8                                 1000                      10                      8
9                                 1001                      11                      9
10                               1010                      12                      A
11                               1011                       13                     B
12                               1100                       14                     C
13                               1101                       15                     D
14                               1110                       16                     E
15                               1111                       17                     F
One’s complement of a binary number 
*The one’s complement of a binary value is obtained by changing its l’s to 0’s and the 0’s to l’s.


*One’s complement of 0100 is 1011 
*One’s complement of 0000 is 1111 
*One’s complement of 0110 is 1001 2’s complement of a binary number 
*2’s complement of a binary value is obtained by
1.converting the value to its is complement, then
2.adding 1 to that complement 


2’s complement of 0110 
step 1 : l’s complement of 0110 is 1001 
step 2 : Adding 1 to 1001 
2’s complement of 0110 is 1010



l's complement


2's Complement

0000                      1111                                     oooo
0001                      1110                                     1111
0010                      1101                                     1110
0011                      1100                                     1101
0100                      1011                                     1100
0101                      1010                                     1011
0110                      1001                                     1010
0111                      1000                                     1001
1000                      0111                                     1000
1001                      0110                                     0111
1010                      0101                                     0110
1011                      0100                                     0101 
1100                      0011                                     0100
1101                      0010                                     0011 
1110                       0001                                    0010
1111                       0000                                    0001


NICENET is an advertising free Internet Classroom Assistant (ICA) 
*BRNET - Bullying Research Network.Designed for Researchers to promote and assist international collaboration among bullying and Acer victimization researchers.
*BRNET - Bio-Resource NetworkIt is a prototype portal site for biological information 
*NICNET - National Informatic Centre Network.

Data Base

*A database involves fields, records, files etc.
*Telephone directory is a good example of a database.
*The field is a single piece of information in a data base such as
*A record is a collection of related fields. 
*A file is a collection of records. 
*Integrated set of files are known as a database. .
*A collection of programs that enables us to store, modify and extract information from a data base is called Database Management System (DBMS)
eg: SQL Server, MS Access, My SQL, Oracle, File Maker. 


*NASSCOM is a trade-association of Indian Information Technology & Business process Outsourcing industry. 
*NASSCOM - National Association of Software & Services Companies
*Duplication of a data is known as
Ans : Data Redundancy
*Award presented for excellence on the internet 
Ans : Webby award (Categories: websites, Interleave advertising, Online film and video and mobile)
*Founder of Satyam Technologies 
Ans : Ramalinga Raju
*A background image that appears behind the text on a page is
Ans : Water Mark
*New name of Satyam Technologies
Ans : Mahendra satyam
*International Institute of Information Technology is located in 
Ans : Bengaluru
*Who built the world’s first binary digital  computer 
Ans : Konard Zuse

Hi-tech Crime Enquiry Cell (HTCEC)

HTCEC is an official set up for handling Cyber Crimes and other techno based crimes in Kerala. It comprises of highly trained personal who are trained in Cyber Forensics by C-DAC.
*Activities of Hi-Tech Crime Enquiry Cell includes Mobile phone trace, Digital evidence collection, handling website and internet related crimes, assistance to investigating agencies.


*Circuit switched network require point to point connection.
*It reserve a dedicated channel for the entire communication.
*In packet switched network data transmitted in the form of small piece of data called packets.
*No dedicated path is in packet switching

Internet works on

(a)Circuit switching
(b)Packet switching
(c )Both (a) and (b)
(d)None of these 
Ans : (c ) Both (a) and (b)
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