*First Malayalam newspaper started its internet edition Ans : Deepika *The first Indian state which provided email facility to all of its Government offices Ans : Goa *First state which started its online lottery Ans : Sikkim *First state in India with all of its Panchayats computerized Ans : Tamilnadu *First paperless government office in India Ans : IT Mission *The first bank, started its Malayalam website Ans : SBT *First University started its Online courses Ans : Andhra Pradesh *First hospital in India which used robot to conduct an operation Ans : AIIMS *First pollution free computerized petrol pump of India is in Ans : Mumbai *First Indian political party which has created its website on internet Ans : Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) *First computer literate corporation in Kerala Ans : Kozhikode * First computer literate gramapanchayat in Kerala Ans : Chamravattam (Malappuram) *First e-literate panchayat in Kerala Ans : Pallichal (Thiruvananthapuram) *First fully computerized panchayat in Kerala Ans : Vellanad *First e-payment Gramapanchayat in India Ans : Manjeswaram *First computerized collectorate Ans : Palakkad *First computerized Taluk Office in India Ans : Ottappalam *Element which is used to make computer chips Ans : Silicon
10^12 - Tera - T 10^9 - Giga - G 10^6 - Mega - M 10^3 - Kilo - K 10^2 - Hecto - h 10^1 - Deca - da 10^-1 - Deci - d 10^-2 - Centi - C 10^-3 - Milli - m 10^-6 - Micro 10^-9 - Nano - n 10^- 12 - Pico - P
*Buffer is a temporary storage area in the memory (usually RAM) *Buffering means preloading of data into a reserved area of memory.
Artificial intelligence *Father of Artificial intelligence- Ans : John Me Carthy *Characteristics of 5th generation computer Ans : Artificial Intelligence * Languages used in artificial Intelligence Ans : PROLOG, LISP
*Simputer is a GNU/Linux based hand held computer (first released in 2002) *SIMPUTER - Simple Inexpensive and Multilingual People’s Computer”. *Simputer was invented by - Vinay Desh Pandey
*First district wide e- literacy project in India Ans : Akshaya Project *Akshaya project extented to all district in Ans : 2008 *Computer literacy project implemented in Kerala Ans : Akshaya Project *Akshaya project was first started in the district Ans : Malappuram *The Panchayat in which Akshaya project was first established in Kerala Ans : Pallikkal (Malappuram) *Brand Ambassador of Akshaya Project Ans : Mammootty
EULA - End User License Agreement
*EULA gives permission to use the software and grants some additional , rights. *It includes the ‘Grant of License’section, which describes how may use the software.
*First I.T.park in India Ans : Technopark *Largest I.T Park in India Ans : Technopark *Technopark is situated in Ans : Kazhakuttom (Thiruvananthapuram) * Technopark was launched on Ans : 28th July 1990 *Present CEO of Technopark Ans : Hrishikesh Nair *First Chairman of Technopark Ans : K.P.P. Nambiar *First privatized IT park in Kerala Ans : Muthoot Technopolis *The founder and first chairman of Keltron Ans : K.P.P. Nambiar *Keltron Ans : KSEDC (Kerala State Electronics Development Corporation) *First district in India with high speed rural broadband connectivity Ans : Idukki *India’s first digital village launched by ICICI bank is at Ans : Akodara (Gujarat)
*WikiLeaks is an international, non-r profit, journalistic organization. *WikiLeaks publishes secret information, news leaks and classified media from anonymous sources. *Founder of WikiLeaks Ans : Julian Assange *WikiLeaks founded in the year Ans : 2006 (Iceland) *Slogan of WikiLeaks Ans : ‘We open governments’ *Smaller Version of image is called Ans : Thumbnail
*World Wide Web (www) - Tim Berners Lee *Microsoft - Bill Gates, Paul Allen *Google - Larry page and Sergey Brin *Face book - Mark Zuckerberg *Twitter - Jack Dorsey *Orkut - Orkut Buyukkokten *Wikipedia - Jimmy Wales,Larry Sanger *Wikileaks - Julian Assange *Yahoo - Jerri Yang and David Filo *E-mail - Ray Tomlinson *G-mail - Paul Buchhiet *Hotmail - Sabeer Bhatia, Jack Smith *Youtube - Stevechen, Chad Hurley, jawed Karim *Apple - Ronald Wayne, Steve Wozniak,Steve Jobs *Whatsapp - Jan Koum Brian Acton Instagram - Kevin Systrom, Mike Krieger (Facebook) *VICTORS was inagurated by Ans : A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (28th July 2005, Thiravananthapuram) *IT, @ school program in Kerala was started in Ans : 2001 *Web portal developed by Kerala Govt, to provide help in agricultural field - e- krishi *e- Governance project of the govt, of Kerala which envisage computerizing local self government institution in Kerala Ans : Information Kerala Mission (IKM) *Woman Known as human computer Ans : Sakunthala Devi *Famous books of Sakunthala Devi Ans : The Joy of Numbers, Puzzles to Puzzle You, Book of Numbers.
Books & Authors
*The Google Story-Mark Malseed *Imaging India Ans : Nandan Nilekani *One night @ call center Ans : Chetan Bhagath *Passage from life of a philosopher Ans : Charles Babbage *Business @ the speed of thought Ans : Bill Gates *A Better India, A Better World Ans : N.R.Narayana Moorthy *Visions, Values and Velocity Ans : Sam Pitroda *Dreaming big: My Journey to Connect India Ans : Sam Pitroda *World Computer Literacy Day Ans : December 2 PSC Recently Asked *World Computer Security Day Ans : November 30 *Wrold Telecommunication and Information society day Ans : May 17
*Mouse - Douglas .C.Engelbart *Keyboard - Christopher Sholes *Digital Compact Disc (CD) - James T. Russell *Digital Computer - Howard Aiken *Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) - Alan Shugart *Laser printing - Gary Starkweather *Simputer - Vinay Desh Pandey *Camera Phone - Philip Kahn *Computer chess - Citric G' Prince *Pagemaker - Paul Brainard *IRC(Internet Relay Chat) - Jarkko Oikarinen
*The first Micro processor in the world Ans : Intel 4004 *Intel 4004 was developed by intel in the year Ans : 1971 *The first Micro processor was designed by Ans : Ted Hoff, Stanley Mazor & Federico Faggin
*Microsoft Office is a software package consisting of a set of application softwares. *MS Office Primarily consists of MIS Word, MS Excel, MS Access, MS Powerpoint and MS Outlook. *Single page of a workbook is known as - Worksheet *The basic storage unit of a spread sheet file is a table. *In a table, data is arranged in rows and columns. *Intersection of a row and a column is called Ans : Cell *Maximum number of worksheets which can be set as default while Creating a new workbook Ans : 225 *Total number of rows in a worksheet of Excel 2007 Ans : 1048576 *Total number of columns in a worksheet of Excel 2007 Ans : 16384 * MS Word is used for word processing purposes. *Files created in MS Word is known as Ans : Document
MS Office 2007 extensions
* MS Word - .docx * MS Excel - .xlsx * MS Powerpoint - .pptx * MS Access - .accdb
*Mail merge feature is commonly associated with Ans : Word Processor *In mail merge operation, word is usually a Ans : client *MS Excel is an electronic spread sheet program. *Files created in MS Excel is known as Workbook *Text editor for Microsoft Windows Notepad *MS Access is an application used for database purposes *MS Powerpoint is used for making computer based presentations with the help of picture slides. *Files 'created in Powerpoint is known as - Presentation
General Keyboard Shortcuts
*CTRLC - Copy *CTRLX - Cut *CTRLV - Paste *CTRLP - Print *CTRLY - Redo *CTRLZ - Undo *CTRLA - Select All *CTRLH - Replace *CTRLF - Find *CTRLG - Go to *CTRL D - To Open font dialog box in MS Word F5 - Refresh AltF4 - Exit AltTab - Switch between , minimized applications
Facts to Remember
*First calculating device in the world Ans : Abacus *Abacus was invented in Ans : China *Calculating tool Napier’s Bones was developed by John Napier *First mechanical and automatic calculator Ans : Pascaline * First logarithmic table was introduced by Ans : John Napier *First data storage machine was invented by Ans : Herman Holerith *The first real mechanical calculating machine Ans : Pascaline *The person who invented Pascaline Ans : Blasie Pascal (1642) *First mechanical ’adding machine was invented by Ans : Blaise Pascal * The first successful difference Engine was made by Ana : Charles Babbage * First analytical engine was invented by Charles Babbage *The first electronic digital computer Ans : ENIAC * ENIAC was developed by Ans : John Mauchly and Presper Eckert * First computer used in business (commercial) applications Ans : UNIVAC - 1 *First complete & fully operational regular electronic digital stored program computer is Ans : EDSAC (6th May 1949) (EDVAG conceived in 1945, but not delivered until August 1949) *First stored program computer designed was Ans : EDVAC *The first computer animated news reader Ans : ANANOVA (Russia) *The first personl computer Ans : Altair 8800 *First book about personal computer Ans : Computer liberation and Dream machine (written by: Ted Nelson) *The first computer graphics used movie Ans : TRON (1982) *The first film which used the morphing Ans : Willow *First Digital computer Ans : Harvard Mark 1 (Howard Aiken) *The first computer game Ans : Space-war *The first E paper Ans : The Thejith (from Belgium) *The first computer magazine Ans : Computers & Automation (Edmund Berkely, 1950)
*USB stands for (a) Universal Serial Bus (b) Universal Synchronous Bus (c ) Unified Serial Bus (d) Ultra Speed Bus Ans : (a) Universal Serial Bus (Sales Asst. Gr.II2016) *AI - Artificial Intelligence *ALGOL - Algorithmic Language *ANSI - American National Standard Institute *ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange *ARP - Address Resolution Protocol *BIT - Binary. Digit *BCD - Binary Coded Decimal *BPI - Bytes per Inch *BPS - Bytes per second , *BCR - Bar Code Reader *CAT - Computer Aided Training *CAD - Computer Aided Design *CAM - Computer Aided Manufacturing *CD - Compact Disk *COBOL- Common Business Oriented Language *CU - Control Unit *CRT - Cathode Ray Tube Data Base *DBMS - Data Base Management System *DOS - Disk Operating System *DBA - Desk Top Publishing *DDL - Data Definition Language *DML -Data Manipulation Language *EBCDIC -Extended Binary Coded - Decimal Interchange Code *VDU - Visual Display Unit *E-mail - Electronic Mail *ECOM - Electronic Commerce *ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator *UNIVAC - Universal Automatic Computer *EDP - Electronic Data Processing *EDSAC - Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator *EDVAC - Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer *EMS - Expanded Memory Specification *ERNET - Education and Research Network *EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read only Memory *FM - Frequency Modulation *FMS - File Management System *FSF - Free Software Foundations *JFTP - File Transfer Protocol *GUI - Graphical User Interface *HLL - High Level Language *HTML - Hyper Text Markup. Language *HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol *IBM - International Business Machines Corporation *JPEG - Joint Photographic Expert Group *LLL- Low Level Language *LCD - Liquid Crystal Display *URL - Uniform Resource Locator *CGA - Color Graphics Adapter *VGA - Video Graphics Array *MPEG - Motion Picture Expert Group *MODEM - Modulator Demodulator *MIS - Management Information System . *NASSCOM - National Association of Software and Services Company *ISP - Internet Service Provider *ITU- International Telecommunication Union *OMR - Optical Mark Reader *OOP - Object Oriented Programming *PC - Personal Computer *VCD - Video CD *VSNL - Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd . *BASIC - Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Codfe *BBS - Bulletin Board System *ISO- International Standard Organisation *BCC - Blind Carbon Copy *POP - Post Office Protocol *BIOS - Basic input/ Output System *BMP - Bit Map *IDN - Integrated Digital Network *DNS - Domain Name System *FORTRAN - Formula Translation - *PDF' - Portable Document Format *GPRS - General Packet Radio Service *GPS - Global Positioning System' *GSM - Global System for Mobile. *VLSI - Very Large Scale Integration *ULSI - Ultra Large Scale Integration *OCR - Optical Character Reader
*Touch screen is an input/output touch sensible display. *Touch screen is sensitive to - Pressure *Touch screen technology is widely used in bank ATMs, mobile phones, tablet computer etc. *Touch pad is a pointing device used in portable computers like laptops. *Track ball is a stationary pointing device with a ball mechanism on top. *Joy stick is a pointing device with a vertical stick mounted on a base *Joy stick is used as an input device when playing computer games and in ultra sound scanners in medical field. *Light pen is a pen shaped pointing device that can detect the presence of light *CAD users use light pen to directly draw on the screen. *It is used in railway and airline reservation counters and it also used by doctors and dentists *Scanner is an input device which converts paper documents (images and printed text) into electronic format and transfers them to a computer. *OCR converts a scanned image (bitmap) to usable word processing format for editing by analysing forlight and dark areas in order to identify each.alphabetic letter or digits. *MICR is primarily used by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of cheques. *Device which helps to watch TV on computer Ans : TV tuner card *Primary output device of a computer Monitor *‘Black and White Monitor’ is known as- Monochrome Monitor Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) technology was used in older monitors. *Modem monitors are typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel. *Organic light emitting diode (OLED) monitors provide higher contrast and better angles than LCD.
*Printers before 1950 are known as Ans : Punch cards *Fastest printer Ans : Laser printer
Hard & Soft copy
*Printed copy of a document is known as Ans : Hard Copy. *Non printed copy of a document is known as Soft Copy. *Printers can be divided into two categories. Ans : Impact printers,Non Impact Printers *In impact printers printing heads touch on the paper. *Examples of impact printers are *Dotmatrix printer *Drum printer *Line printer *Chain printer *Character printer *Daisy wheel printer. *Printing heads of non impact printers do not touch on the paper. *Laser printer is an example of non. impact printer. Laser printer uses a laser beam, toner and a drum. *Laser printers are also called page printers as they print one page at a time. *Inkjet printer is another example of non impact printer.. *The output resolution of a printer is measured in Ans : DPI (Dots Per Inch) *The output device commonly used for Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) application Ans : Plotter
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
*CPU controls; overall functioning of the computer. *All the data processing is done inside CPU. *CPU is known as the brain of the computer. *Control unit is known as the Nerve centre of the computer. *Three parts of the CPU are Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Control Unit Memory Unit Arithmetic and Logic unit: ALU performs all arithmetical and logical operations. *Control Unit : Control unit controls and coordinates the functions of all units of a computer system *Part of CPU which decode program instruction (That means, fetches instruction from memory) -Control Unit *Memory Unit: It is used for the storage of data. *Memory is mainly classified into Primary *Memory and Secondary Memory *The term associated with processing speed of computer - MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second)
Sections of IT Act 2000
*Section 4 - Authentication of electronic records, legal sanctity to E-FIR *Section 5 - Legal recognition of digital signatures *Section 6 - Use of electronic records and digital signatures in Government and its agencies. *Section 7 - Retention of electronic records *Section 8 - Publication of rule, regulation etc in Electronic Gazette. *Section 4 to 10 - Electronic Governance *Section 11 - Attribution of electronic records *Section 12 - Acknowledgement of receipt *Section 13 - Time and place of despatch and receipt of electronic records. *Section 17 - Appointment of Controller and other Officers *Section 18 - Functions of Controller *Section 19 - Recognition of foreign Certifying Authorities *Section 21 - The Licence to issue Digital Signature Certificates *Section 44 - Penalty for failure to furnish information, return etc. *Section 62 - Appeal to High Court *Section 65 - Tampering with Computer System Document *Section 66 - Hacking *Section 66 B - Receiving stolen computer or commimication device *Section 66 C - Identity theft *Section 66 D - Cheating by personation by using computer resources *Section 66 E - Violation of privacy *Section 66 F - Acts of cyber terrorism *Section 67 A - Publishing images containing sexually explicit act (Pornography) *Section 67 B - Child Pornography *Section 73 - Penalty for publishing false digital signature
*Unauthorized copying, reproduction, use or manufacture of product is called Software piracy
*It is a small program that monitor and retrieve the user name or password of network users during their login.
Cyber Stalking (e-stalking)
*Practice of using internet to harass or threaten some one *This can be avoided by not disclosing any personal information, avoid sending photographs to strangers and chat friends, proper disconnection of internet after its use.
*Cyber stalking is also known as Cyber Bullying
*Hacking of websites by password cracking and alteration of contents for fulfilling political objectives or for money.Web Jacking punishes the offender under IPC 383
*Data Diddling is the unauthorized changing of data before or during their input to a computer system. egs Forgery, exchanging valid records with prepared replacement etc.
*Procurement of identifying information without permission and using it fraudulently to obtain goods and services is called identity theft.
*Process of unauthorized access of information system is known as Ans : Hacking *One who does hacking is called Ans : Hacker *Hacker destroys, defects or alters the information in a computer resource.Hacking comes under section 66 of IT Act 2000 *Hackers are of different categories such as White Hat Hackers, Black Hat Hackers, Gray Hat Hackers *White Hat hackers hack system for good reason. *They are also known as Ethical Hackers. *Black Hat Hackers hack system for malicious reasons. *Gray Hat Hackers hack system sometimes for good reason and sometimes for malicious reasons. *Banking and credit card related crime, E-commerce and investment frauds, online sale of illegal articles, online gambling etc also comes under cyber crime. *Unauthorized use of internet hours paid for by another person is known as theft of internet hours. *A computer connects to the internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or Trojan horse and can be used for malicious tasks is called Ans : Zombie
Intellectual Property Right
*Intellectual property refers to the creations of mind : Inventions, Literary and Artistic works etc. *Intellectual property rights refers to the general term for the assignment of property rights through patents, copyrights and trademarks *IPR (Intellectual Property Right) violations include trademark violations, computer source code theft, patent violation and software piracy. . *Theme of World Intellectual Property Day (April 26) (WIPD) 2016 - Digital Creativity : Culture Reimagined *Theme of World Intellectual Property Day 2017 - Innovation - Improving Lives *Position of India in Intellectual Property Index 2017 - 43
Denial of Service
*A denial of service attack is an attack meant to shut down a machine or network, making it inaccessible to its intended users. *In Cyber law terminology 'DOS'means Ans : Denial of Service
Example of denial of service attack
*Attempt to flood a network thereby Preventing legitimate network traffic *Attemps to disrupt connections between two machines,there by preventing access to a Service *Attempts to prevent a particular individual from accessing a service
*The person who defined the term ‘Computer Virus’ - Fred Cohen (1983) *A virus is a computer program that candamage the operations of a computer system It usually harm the computer either by altering or deleting files *VIRUS - Vital Information Resource Under Siege *First computer virus Ans : Brain *First computer virus for MS DOS Ans : Brain *Brain virus was developed by Ans : Basit Farooq Alvi, Amjad Farooq Alvi *First virus affected in ARPANET (ancientform of internet) Ans : Creeper *First micro computer virus Ans : Elk cloner *First virus affected personal computer Ans : Apple *First mobile phone virus Ans : Cabir *Virus program writing programmers Ans : Vickser
*Digital Number Systems are the following 1.Decimal Number System 2.Binary Number System 3.Octal Number System 4.Hexa Decimal Number System *Base of Decimal Number System Ans : 10 *Digits used in decimal number system Ans : 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 (0-9) *Base of Binary Number System Ans : 2 *Digits used in Binary Number System Ans : 0,1 *Total number of digits in binary system Ans : 2 *Base of Octal Number System Ans : 8 *Numbers used in Octal Number System Ans : 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 (0-7) * Base of Hexa Decimal Number System - Ans : 16 *Numbers used in Hexa Decimal Number System - 0-9 and A-F *Numbers used in Hexa Decimal Number System - 0-9 and A-F (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F)
0 0000 0 0 1 0001 1 1 2 0010 2 2 3 0011 3 3 4 0100 4 4 5 0101 5 5 6 0110 6 6 7 0111 7 7 8 1000 10 8 9 1001 11 9 10 1010 12 A 11 1011 13 B 12 1100 14 C 13 1101 15 D 14 1110 16 E 15 1111 17 F One’s complement of a binary number *The one’s complement of a binary value is obtained by changing its l’s to 0’s and the 0’s to l’s.
*One’s complement of 0100 is 1011 *One’s complement of 0000 is 1111 *One’s complement of 0110 is 1001 2’s complement of a binary number *2’s complement of a binary value is obtained by 1.converting the value to its is complement, then 2.adding 1 to that complement
2’s complement of 0110 step 1 : l’s complement of 0110 is 1001 step 2 : Adding 1 to 1001 1001 0001 1010 2’s complement of 0110 is 1010
NICENET is an advertising free Internet Classroom Assistant (ICA) *BRNET - Bullying Research Network.Designed for Researchers to promote and assist international collaboration among bullying and Acer victimization researchers. *BRNET - Bio-Resource NetworkIt is a prototype portal site for biological information *NICNET - National Informatic Centre Network.
*A database involves fields, records, files etc. *Telephone directory is a good example of a database. *The field is a single piece of information in a data base such as ‘DATE, ‘NAME’, ‘ADDRESS’ etc. *A record is a collection of related fields. *A file is a collection of records. *Integrated set of files are known as a database. . *A collection of programs that enables us to store, modify and extract information from a data base is called Database Management System (DBMS) eg: SQL Server, MS Access, My SQL, Oracle, File Maker.
*NASSCOM is a trade-association of Indian Information Technology & Business process Outsourcing industry. *NASSCOM - National Association of Software & Services Companies *Duplication of a data is known as Ans : Data Redundancy *Award presented for excellence on the internet Ans : Webby award (Categories: websites, Interleave advertising, Online film and video and mobile) *Founder of Satyam Technologies Ans : Ramalinga Raju *A background image that appears behind the text on a page is Ans : Water Mark *New name of Satyam Technologies Ans : Mahendra satyam *International Institute of Information Technology is located in Ans : Bengaluru *Who built the world’s first binary digital computer Ans : Konard Zuse
Hi-tech Crime Enquiry Cell (HTCEC)
HTCEC is an official set up for handling Cyber Crimes and other techno based crimes in Kerala. It comprises of highly trained personal who are trained in Cyber Forensics by C-DAC. *Activities of Hi-Tech Crime Enquiry Cell includes Mobile phone trace, Digital evidence collection, handling website and internet related crimes, assistance to investigating agencies.
CIRCUIT SWITCHING &PACKET SWITCHING
*Circuit switched network require point to point connection. *It reserve a dedicated channel for the entire communication. *In packet switched network data transmitted in the form of small piece of data called packets. *No dedicated path is in packet switching
Internet works on
(a)Circuit switching (b)Packet switching (c )Both (a) and (b) (d)None of these Ans : (c ) Both (a) and (b)
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