Information Technology & Cyber Laws 2

SUPER COMPUTER


*Father of Super computer
Ans : Seymour Cray
*Super computers are used for very complex calculations. Used for the applications in aerospace, oil explorations, geology, molecular dynamics etc.
*PARAM is a series of Super computers developed by C-DAC in Pune under the leadership of Dr. Vijay P. Bhatkar.
*C-DAC was setup in 1988
*First director of CDAC
Ans : Dr. Vijay P. Bhatkar
*Super computer developed by ISRO in 2011 - SAGA-220
*World’s fastest super computer 
Ans : Sunway Taihulight 
*Super computer developed by India are 
Ans : KKA,PARAM,Kabru,Blue Gene
*NASA’s Altix super computer named after Kalpana chawla
Ans : KC
*First super computer 
Ans : CDC 6600
*India’s first super computer 
Ans : Param 8,000
*India’s fastest super computer 
Ans : Param Yuva II (developed by - C-DAC)
*First super computer reached teraflop speed
Ans : ASCI Red
*The super computer ‘Param Kanchenjunga’ was launched in
Ans : Sikkim



FLOPS


Commonly computing power (processing speed) of super computer is measured in
Ans : Flops (FLOPS -Floating Point Operations Per Second)



Programming Language


*Language that can be used to create programs is known as 
Ans : Programming language
*A programming language is a primary interface of a programmer with a computer.



Low Level Languages


*Two types of low level languages are Machine languages and Assembly languages.



Machine Language


*Binary language is used as machine language,
*Computer performs all the arithmetical and logical opeStions in binary form (05s and 1 ’s)
*Only one language understood by the computer is machine language.
*Binary language uses only (0's and 1's as its digits.



Assembly Language


*Assembly language is a second generation low level language.
*Assembly language uses symbolic codes (mnemonics) to represent corresponding machine codes.
*Assembly languages are faster than high level languages.



Language Developers


B - Ken Thomson
C - Dennis Ritchie
C - B. Stroustrup
c# - Microsoft
VB - Microsoft
.Net - Microsoft
Java - James A Glossing
Python - Gaido Van Rossum



High Level Language


*High level language uses English words and familiar mathematical symbols
*Programs written in high level language has to be converted to machine language before execution.
*Examples of highlevel languages - BASIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, LISP, PROLOG, C, C, Java, Visual Basic, Python etc.
*Programming language used for business data processing - COBOL
*COBOL - Common Business Oriented Language
*Languages used for the creation of web pages - HTML, PHP, Java Script etc 
*HTML- Hypertext Markup Language
*HTML was developed by
Ans : Tim Berners Lee
*HTML code is related to
Ans : notepad
*Java was formerly known as
Ans : Oak
*Java was developed by the company 
Ans : Sun Micro Systems.
*Postscript language is primarly used for
Ans : Printers



Bug & Debug

  

*Error in software or programs is known as
Ans : Bug
*The process of eliminating errors in programs 
Ans : Debugging
*Alternative Jargon for bug
Ans : Glitch
*Y2K bug is also known as
Ans : Millennium bug



TRANSLATORS


*Translators are programs used to convert a program written in other languages to machine language.
Eg. Assembler, Compiler, Interpreter



Assembler


*Assembler convert assembly language program into machine language programs.



Compiler and Interpreter


*Compiler and interpreter convert program written in high level language into machine language before execution at a time.
*Compiler takes entire program as input at a time and convert into machine language eg: C Compiler
*Interpreter takes single instruction at a time as input and convert into machine language, eg: BASIC
*Interpreter is a line -by line traslator.



COMPUTER NETWORKS


*In a computer network computers are connected to each other for communication
*Data transmission rate of communication channel is usually measured in 
Ans : Bits per Second



LAN-MAN-WAN


*Three types of basic computer Networks are LAN,MAN and WAN
*LAN (Local Area Network) is the network that is usually used inside an office building or inside a class room
*Most common technologies currently used to build LAN - Ethernet and WiFi
*MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) is a network that spread over a city. 
*Network used in cable TV connection is MAN.
*WAN (Wide Area Network) spans a relatively large geographical area. WAN interconnects countries. 
*Biggest wide area network is internet.
*Personal Area Network (PAN) is a communication network connecting personal devices.
*The first person who proposed the development of a global network of a computer
Ans : J.C.R. Licklider



INTERNET


*Several thousands of individual computer networks are interconnected to form the internet.
*It is a world wide network of computer. 
*Internet protocol suit is commonly known as 
Ans : TCP/IP
*The communication protocol of internet is 
Ans : TCP/IP
*TCP 
Ans : Transmission Control Protocol
*IP 
Ans : Internet Protocol
*TCP/IP came into being in the year
Ans : 1982
*Number of layers in TCP/IP Model
Ans : 4 
*Number of layers m, the OSI Model
Ans : 7
*Routers operate in which layer of OSI reference model
Ans : Network layer
*The network which is known as International network
Ans : Internet
*The network which is considered as the ancient form of internet
Ans : ARPANET 
*ARPANET was developed by
Ans : American Department of Defence
*Internet in India was started by
Ans : VSNL (Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited)
*Commonly used Internet access methods are
Ans : Dial-up, ISDN, DSL, Cable Modem
*Websites which help us to upload videos 
Ans : YouTube, Yahoo Video, My video
*What is backup?
(a)Adding more components to your network 
(b)Protecting data by copying it from the original source to a different destination 
(c ) Filtering old data from new data (d) Accessing data on tape
Ans :  (b)



Intranet and Extranet


*Technology used in intranet to share information, hardware and other resources is
Ans : Internet Protocol Technology 
*Intranet is a network of computers within an organization which follows the same protocol as the internet and provides the same service as the internet.
*Extranet is a closed online connection of two or more organisation
*Internal network which is designed to provide & disseminate information to internal staff by using the look and feel of the World Wide Web
Ans : Intranet



NETWORK DEVICES


Modem (Modulator Demodulator)
*It is a device that acts as analog to digital and digital to analog signal converter.
*It helps to transmit signals through telephone lines.



ISDN


*It is a phone line facility provided by the telecome company

ISDN Modem


*Modem is used to provide internet through ISDN



HUB


*It is a device to connect more than one computer together in a network 
*Hub takes data that comes from one channel and sends out to all other channel on the hub.
*Hub is also known as - Concentrator



ISP


*Internet Service Provider eg: VSNL, Asianet, Reliance



Optical Fibre Cable


*Medium that is used to transmit data at high speed over internet - Optical Fibre Cable 



Repeater


*Repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits, it at a higher level or higher power .



Router


*A router is a device that forwards data packets along networks.
*A router is connected to atleast two net works, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP’s network.
*Device which enables movement of data from one network to other network - Router



Gateway


*Gateway is a router or a proxy server that routes between networks.



Bridge


*Bridge is a device used to connect two segments of a LAN or two LAN 



Bluetooth


*A short range wireless technology used to connect and exchange information between device such as PCs, Mobile phones, Laptops etc



WiFi 


*WiFi - Wireless Fidelity
*It is a wireless local area network.
*It allows electronic device to exchange data wirelessly using radio waves.
*WiMAX - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
*Which of the following is NOT a requirement for operating wi-fi network? 
(a) Wireless router (b) Transponders 
(c ) Antenna (d) Wireless adapter 
Ans : (b) Transponders
*A device mounted on a communication satellite which receives, amplifies, retransmit signals from earth stations 
Ans : Transponder



IP address


*IP address is a numerical value assigned to each device participating in a computer network
*IP address is unique
*Commonly it is a 32 bit number
*The system of 32 bit number IP addressing is known as - IPv4
*The system of 128 bit number IP addressing is known as - IPv6
*IPv6 address is 96 bit more than that of IPv4
*ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a private Organization started in 1998 to oversee a number of internet related tasks.



Client Server Computing


*A methodology of architecturing computer applications in which clients request services and servers provide them.
eg: Email clients retrieve email from mail servers.
*Information from server computer to client computer travels in the form of packets. 
*Remote login : - The facility to login and use a remote computer in a network from a user’s terminal.



E- Mail


*E- mail is a digital message from an author to one or more recipients.
*Email was introduced by
Ans : Ray Tomlinson
*First message that sent through the e-mail 
Ans : QWERTYUIOP 
*Voice Mail - Voice mail system allow users to send recorded audio message to a recipient through e- mail.
*E- mail client (E- mail reader):- It is a computer program used to access and manage a user’s e-mails.
*It is also known as Mail Users Agent (MUA) Eg.Mozilla Thunderbird, Outlook Express. 
*Email service provided by Google
Ans : Gmail



Hot Mail


*Email service provided by Microsoft
Ans : Hotmail
*Hotmail was invented by
Ans : Sabeer Bhatia (India), Jack Smith 
*Hotmail was owned by Microsoft and renamed as outlook.com 



World Wide Web (WWW)


*WWW was invented by
Ans : Tim Berners Lee
*Head quarters of WWW
Ans : Geneva 
*World Wide Web is a system of interlinked documents accessed through internet.
*In India World Wide Web Information Service was launched on 14th January 1995.
*W3C stands for World Wide Web Consourtium
*Hyperlink : - It is a link, when user click on this, it directs user to related document. 
*URL : Uniform Resource Locator 
*URL is an address used to identify the name of a web resource.
*In other words it is a web address which indicates web page.
*Example for a URL - http://www.intemet.com
*Part of the URL which indicates particular webpage is known as 
Ans : Domain name
*In “http://www.google.com” domain name is 
Ans : google.com
*Every domain name has a suffix that indicates top level domain it belongs to
*Service which is used to translate domain name to IP address - DNS (Domain Name System)
*Suffixes indicating top level domains
Ans :  .gov - Government agencies 
.edu - Educational institutions 
.org - Organizations 
.mil - Militaiy 
.net - Network Organizations



Cookie


*Cookie is also known as http Cookie or web cookie
*Cookies are created when user’s browser loads a particular website.
*Everytime the user loads the website the browser sends the cookie back to the server to notify the website of the user’s previous activity. 
*Unwanted or non-requested e-mails received in a folder is known
Ans : Spam
*Pages consist of information on world wide web is known as 
Ans : Webpages
*Web browsers retrieve web. pages from web servers.



Protocols


*Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP):- http is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.
http ://www.
*http protocol defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web Servers and browsers should take. 
*http is a stateless protocol.
*Because each command is executed independently, without any knowledge of the commands that came before it.
*URL begins with “http://”
*Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS):-
*https is the secure form of http.
*The 's' at the end of http stands for 'secure'
*Which protocol is used for secure communication over internet
(a) IP (b) UDP
(c ) HTTP (d) HTTPS
Ans : (d) HTTPS
(Sales Asst. Gr.II, 2016)
*It means all communications between browser and the website is encrypted
*https is commonly used to protect highly confidential online transactions.
*URL begins with “https://”
*File Transfer Protocol (FTP):- Rules used in a computer network to copy large files from remote computer to requestor’s computer.
*Protocol that helps to send emails SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) 
*This protocol can only be used to send emails, not to receive them.
*Protocol which is used to receive email -POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
*Protocol used in wireless devices like mobile phone to use internet — WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
*Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 
ARP is a protocol for mapping the Internet Protocol Address (IP Address) to a hardware address



Web browser


*Web browser : It is a software application to retrieve and view information over world wide web.
*The browser, Internet explorer was introduced in 1995 by Microsoft.
*Web browser developed by Google
Ans : Google Chrome 
*Important web browsers are
•Mozilla Firefox
•Opera
•Google chrome
•Safari
•Epic
•Example of mobile browsers
•Android 
•Black berry
•Dolphin 
•UC browser
*The process of visiting a number of websites in rapid succession is called
Ans : Surfing
*The first web browser
Ans : Nexus 
*Nexus was Invented by
Ans : Tim Berners Lee (1990)
*Fastest web browser
Ans : Safari 
*Safari browser was developed by Apple and released in January 2003.
*First web browser developed, in India
Ans : Epic
*Epic was developed by the company 
Ans : Hidden Reflex (Bengaluru)
*Epic was released on 29th August 2013 
*Epic is available in 13 Indian Languages and the foreign languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Greek.



Search Engine

 

*Search Engine is a software that is designed  to search for information on the World Wide Web.
*First Search Engine in the internet
Ans : Archie (1990)
*Archie was created by   
Ans : Alan Emtage, Bill Heelan,J. Peter Deutsch
*Important Search engines are  
-Google 
-Yahoo 
-Bing 
-Ask.com
* Search engine which is launched by DEITY (Department , of Electronics and Information Technology) to search  tourism related queries  Sandhan 
*Bing search engine was developed by Microsoft. 



Social Networking 


Social Networking Sites
*Social networking service is web based platform to build social network among people haying same interests, activities and backgrounds.
*Some of the popular social networking sites are Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, Google Plus, Linked In, My space, Meet me, Skype



FACEBOOK


*Facebook was started in the year
Ans : 2004 
*Founder of Facebook 
Ans : Mark Zuckerberg
*Which social media on 18th April, 2015 unveiled a new music app called # Music 
(a) Facebook (b) Twitter 
(c ) YouTube  (d) Stumble Upon 
Ans :  (b) Twitter
*Blog is a discussion or international site published on world wide web
*Social network service which is known as SMS in the world of Internet - Twitter
*The word Blog is the short form of Web Log
*The word web log was coined by
Ans :  John Barger (1997)
*The word ‘Blog’ was first used by
Ans : Peter merholz
*Messages posted in the twitter are called
Ans : tweets
*Information that written in a blog is called Posts
*The social networking site Orkut was owned by
Ans : Google



E-commerce


*E-commerce - Electronic commerce 
*The buying and selling of products and services through an an electronic medium is called - E-commerce
*Examples of e-commerce sites - Flipkart, Snapdeal, Alibaba, Amazon, ebay, Myntra, Jabong etc.
*Headquarters of Flipkart 
Ans : Bengaluru
*Flipkart was started by - Sachin Bansal and Binny Bansal in 2007.
*Chairman of e-commerce site Alibaba
Ans : Jack ma



Cloud computing 


*Cloud computing is a kind of internet based computing that provides shared processing resources & data to computers & other devices on demand. 
*Free and open source suite developed for setting up a cloud computing environment
Ans : Meghdoot
*Meghdoot was developed by 
Ans : C-DAC
*An attack accomplished by using the Internet to break into computers and using them to attack a network is called distributed DOS
*Hardware devices that are not part of the main computer system and are often added later to the system
Ans : Peripherals
*When using microsoft word, how can you increase the font size of selected text by one point every time
(a)By pressing Ctrl [
(b)By pressing Ctrl ]
(c )By pressing Ctrl Shift
(d)By pressing Ctrl  1 
Ans :  (b)



Silicon Valley


*Headquarters of Intel
Ans : Santa Clara (Silicon Valley) 
*Capital city of Hitech business 
Ans : Silicon Valley (America) 
*Silicon Valley of India 
Ans : Bengaluru
*Computer is also referred as 
Ans : Silicosapiens



Categories of E-commerce


*B2B (Business to Business) - Companies doing business with each other 
*B2C (Business to Consumer) - Business selling to the general public through shopping cart software.
*C2B (Consumer to Business) - Consumers post a project with a set budget online, and companies bid on the project. 
*C2C(Consumer to consumer)-This takes place in one line classified adds.



CYBER LAW


*Cyber laws are basic laws of cyber society which maintains harmony and co-existence of people in cyber space.
*Cyber laws are divided into 4
1.Laws relating to digital contracts
2.Laws relating to digital property
3.Laws relating to digital rights
4.Law of cyber crimes



IT Act 2000


*First cyber law in India
Ans : IT Act 2000
*IT Act 2000 was enacted on
Ans : 9,h June 2000
*IT Act 2000 came into force on
Ans : 17th October 2000
*The headquarters of Asian school of Cyber Laws
Ans : Pune
*The first cyber crime police station in India
Ans : Bengaluru 
*The first Cyber Post office in India 
Ans : Chennai
*India’s first cyber forensic Laboratory
Ans : Tripura 
*The first cyber police station in Kerala
Ans : Pattom (Thiruvananthapuram)
*It has 13 chapters and 94 sections.
*Controller of certifying authority appointed by Central Government is the Regulatory authority of IT Act 2000.
*IT Act 2000 mainly focuses on the following issues
•Legal recognition of electronic documents
•Legal recognition of digital signatures
•Offences and contraventions
•Justice dispensation system for cyber crimes 
*Information Technology (Certifying Authority) Regulations 2001 came into  force on 9th July 2001.
*Certifying Authority means a person who has been granted a licence to issue a digital signature certificate under Section 24 of the Act.
*‘Public Key Certificate’ means a Digital Signature Certificate issued by Certifying Authority.
*Certificate Revocation List is a periodically issued list, digitally signed by a certifying authority, of identified digital signature certificates that have been suspended or revoked prior to their expiration date.



Cyber Offences according to IT Act 2000


*Tampering with computer documents.
*Hacking with computer system.
*Intrusion into protected system.
*Misrepresentation
*Confiscation.



IT Act (Amendment) 2008


*IT Act 2000 was substantially amended through the Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008.
*The amended act provides additional focus on information security.
*Several new sections were added on the offences such as Cyber terrorism and data protection.
*There are 124 sections and 14 chapters in IT Act (Amendment) 2008.
*The term ‘ Electronic signature ’ was   introduced by information  ( Technology (Amendment) Act 2008. 



Rank Making Info


*Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008 was passed by the houses of parliament on 23rd and 24th of December 2008.
*It received the presidential assent on 5th February 2009.
*IT Act 2008 came into force on 27th October 2009.
*According to It Act 2008, any police officer not below the rank of a deputy superintendent of police (DSP) is the authority responsible for investigating the cyber crime incidents.
*As per the IT Amendment Act 2008 the level of investigation brought down to the Inspectors from DSP’s.



Punishment in Cyber Law by IPC


*Punishment for Hacking :Imprisonment up to 3 years or fine which may extend up to 5 lakhs or both.
*If virus attack damages the computer or computer Network-Compensation up to five crores to be given to the affected
*Publishing and transmitting information which is obscene in electronic form-Punishment up to 3 years and up to 5 lakhs rupees fine for first convict
*Publication and transmission of pornographic materials-Imprisonment up to 5 years and fine of 10 lakh rupees
*Child Pornography-Imprisonment uptp 5 yeafs and a fine of 10 lakh
*Concealing, destroying or altering any computer source code-A fine extended up to  2 lakh and imprisonment up to 3 years. 
*Sending offensive message through communication service-Punishment up to 3 years and fine.



First Cyber Crime


*On whose name the first cyber crime was registered in the world
Ans : Joseph Marie Jacquard 
*The counsel who appeared in the first cyber crime trial
Ans : Pavan Duggal 
*On whose name the first cyber crime was registered in India 
Ans : Arif Asim
*The first Asian country to enforce Cyber laws 
Ans : Singapore



CERT-IN


*It is a nodal agency that deals with cyber threats.
*CERT - IN stands for Indian ComputerEmergency Response Team.
*CERT - IN was established in 2004.
*This authority gives order for blocking websites.
* The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team serves as:
(a)The National Nodal Agency in respect of Critical Information Infrastructure Protection
(b)The Cyber Regulations Advisory Authority
(c )The National Agency for incident response
(d)None of the above
Ans: (c ) The National Agency for incident response
Which is the National nodal agency forresponding to computer security incidentsas and when they occur
(a) CAT (b) ICERT
(c ) CCA (d) CD AC
Ans: (b) ICERT(Sales Asst. Gr.II, 2016)



Cyber Appellate Tribunal


*CAT - Cyber Appellate Tribunal 
*Cyber Appellate Tribunal was initially known as Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal (CRAT)
*CRAT started functioning from October 2006.
*CAT is the first and only of its kind in India. 
*CRAT was established in accordance with the provisions under Section 48 (1) of the IT Act 2000.



Cyber Crimes


*Cyber crime is defined as a crime in which a computer is the object of the crime.Cyber crimes can be classified into two
(1)Crimes involving computer as a target 
eg: Vims, Worm and Trojan horse attacks, Hacking, Denial of Service attacks etc.
(2)Crimes involving computer as a weapon.
eg: IPR violations, credit card frauds, pornography, Cyber Terrorism 



Cyber Crimes


Snooping


*Snooping is the unauthorized access to another person’s company’s data.
*Snooping can include casual observance of an e-mail that appears on another’s computer screen or watching what someone else is typing.



Defamation


*The act of any intentional false communication that harms the reputation of an individual, business,product, government or nation is called - Defamation
*Defamation is also known as Calumny, Vilification or Traducement



Phishing


Practice of sending fake emails in the name of reputed companies to retrieve personal information such as passwords and credit card numbers



Forgery


*Forgery includes counterfeit currency notes, postage and revenue stamps, mark sheets etc. can be forged using sophisticated computers, printers and scanners.
*Impersonization of another person is also considered as Forgery



Email bombing


*Repeatedly sending an email message to a particular address for abuses.
*E-mail bombing is a type of denial of service attack



Email Spamming


*Use of emails for sending unsolicited bulk emails (spams) and commercial messages over the internet



Email Spoofing


*Creation of email messages with fake sender address to mislead the recipient. 
*Spamming and phishing uses email spoofing
*In other words E-mail spoofing is a technique commonly used to hide the origin of an E-mail message.
*E-mail spoofing in India, charges the offender for forgery under section - IPC 463



Pornography


*Pornography is the portrayal of sexual acts for the purpose of sexual excitement.
*Persons who intentionally prey upon children are known as - Pedophiles 
*Pedophiles earns children’s especially teen’s trust and gradually seduce them into sexual or indecent act.



Symptoms of a computer virus


1.Computer runs-slower than usual.
2.Computer stops responding.
3.Applications do not work properly.
4. Disks or disk drives may be inaccessible. 
5.It shows universal error message.
*Examples for computer viruses - TEXAS Virus, Blaster, Nimda, I Love You, Guppy, 1 Melissa, Slammer



Antivirus


*Antivirus is a computer software which is used to prevent, delete and detect the presence of VIRUS in Computer.
*Examples of antivirus program - Avast, Avira, AV G antivirus, Kaspersky, Norton, McAfee 



Worm


*Worm is a subclass of computer virus
*Worms can replicate itself to the hundreds and thousands of its copy through network connections to any machine without any human intervention



Trojan Horses


*Trojan horses ire hot viruses
*Trojan horse is a malware which appears to be useful applications like screen savers
*But it allows hacker to take control of the system by remote login.
*It does not replicate itself instead it makes the user to trust and receive the infected files.



Logic bomb


* Logic bomb is a piece of code (program) inserted into a software
* system that will execute its malicious function when the specified conditions are met.   
*Trojans that activate on certain dates  (as set by its designer) are often called as time bombs



Ransomware


* It is a very popular way internet criminals to make money
* Ransomware make the user unable to access the system displaying some kind of screen demanding some form of payment to have the computer unlocked.



Adware


* Adware is not truly a malware. It is asoftware package that automatically  renders advertisements in order to generate revenue  for its author.
* Adware tracks our internet browsing  habits and sends popup advertisements  related to the sites and topics of our interes



Keyloggers


*Keylogger is a software that can record  every keystroke we make to login a file  
* A key logger can record instant  messages, email and any information we type at anytime using our keyboard.



Malwares


*Malware is a general term used to refer Malicious Softwares that can harm the computer.
*In cyber law malware is known as 
Ans : Computer Contaminants
*Examples of Malware - Computer viruses, Worms, Trojan horses, Spyware etc.
*The most dangerous computer malware Flame (It has a property of Virus)



Spyware


*Spyware is a malware which downloads itself onto the computer system through an email or a downloaded program
*Spyware Scans Computer hard disk automatically for personal information
*Spyware sends the collected secret information to the individuals who created the spyware



Firewall


*Firewall is a protection scheme for data. 
*It protects our information system from unsecured public network.
*Examples of Firewell software - Comodo, Ashampoo, Agnitum Outpost, Zone Alaram etc.



Cryptography


*Cryptography is the science of secret writing.
*Cryptography consists of encrypting and decrypting of data.
*Encrypting is the process of transporting plain text to unreadable scrambled text called cipher text.
*Decryption is the reverse process of encryption. It converts unreadable cipher text to plain text.
*The word cryptography was originated from Greek words ‘Kryptos’ means secret and ‘graphein’ means writing. 



Digital Signature


*Electronic files that are used to identify people and resources over internet.
*It ensures that the credibility of the gender, who sends the data over Internet.
Any electronic signat tire or electronic authentication technique shall be considered reliable: 
(a) If the signature creation data or the authentication data are, within the context linked to die signatory or as the case be, the authenticator and of no other person.   
(b) If the signature creation data or  authentication data Were, at the time of Signing; under the control of the signatory or, as the case maybe, the authenticator and made after its authentication by electronic 
(c )If any alteration to the information made after is authentication by electronic signature is detectable
(d) All the above
Ans: (d) All the above
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