Information Technology & Cyber Laws 1

COMPUTER


*Computer is an electronic device that receives data, process it and gives meaningful informations.
*The word ‘computer’ is originated from the Latin words ‘Computus’ and ‘computare’ Collection of facts and figures are called 
Ans : Data
*Processed data is called 
Ans : Information. 
*Information conveys a meaningful message
*A set of actions performed by the computer to convert data into information is called 
Ans : Data processing
*The word ‘data’ is originated from the Latin word ‘datum’
*The way that computers manipulate data into information is called 
Ans : Processing
*A program in execution is called
Ans : Process
*The type of test used in com-puting to check whether or not the password user is a human
(a)Debugging
(b)Cryptanalysis
(c )CAPTCHA 
(d) Black Box
Testing Arts : (c ) CAPTCHA
(Sales Asst Gr. II, 2016) CAPTCHA - Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans



Characteristics of computer


*Accuracy                      * Speed       
* Versatility                    *Automation
*Storage capacity        *Reliability
*Diligence                       



Computer Generation


Generation      Examples   Year      Switching Device
*First - UNIVAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, ENIAC - 1949-55 - Vacuum Tubes (The Vaccum Tube was invented by - John A. Fleming] 
*Second - IBM 7000, NCR 304, IBM 650,  IBM 1401, ATLAS, MARK 111, IBM 1620, IBM 7094, CDC 1604, CDC 3600, CDC 164 - 1956 - 65 - Transistors
*Third - PDP-8, ICL 2900, IBM 360, IBM 370/168, TDC-316, Honeywell - 6000 series - 1966 - 75 - Integrated circuits
* Fourth - DEC 10, STAR 1000, CRAY-1, CRAY-X-MP - 1975 - 86 - VLSI Micro processor
*Fifth - 1986 - ULSI Micro processor



FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF COMPUTERS


*Input Unit
*Central Processing Unit
*Output Unit



INPUT UNIT AND OUTPUT UNIT’


*Device which receives data for processing are called input device.
*An input device converts input information into suitable binary code form acceptable to a computer.



Input Output devices


*Major Input Devices - Keyboard, Mouse, Light pen, Joystick, Scanner, Track ball, Microphone, Digital Camera, Touch screen, Barcode Reader, Optical Mark Reader (OMR), Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
*Major Output Devices - Monitor, Printer, Projector, Sound card, Speaker, Video card, Plotter, Head phone



KEYBOARD


Keys on keyboard
*Alpha numeric keys - letters and numbers 
*Punctuation keys - comma, period, semicolon etc.
*Special keys - Function keys, arrow keys, caps lock key. etc.
*The number of function keys on keyboard 
Ans : 12
*The largest key on the keyboard 
Ans : Space bar
*The key placed at the top left comer of the keyboard
Ans : Escape key (Esc key)
*The Primary input device
Ans : Keyboard
*The Primary output device
Ans : Monitor



ASCII


*Standard which is used to convert a keystroke to its corresponding bit 
Ans : ASCII
*ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
*Normally ASCII has 7 - bit code characters.
*An 8 bit character encoding commonly used in IBM mainframe operation systems 
Ans : EBCDIC 
*EBCDIC - Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
Ans : 256 (0-255)



MOUSE


* Pointing device used in computer
Ans : Mouse
*Mouse was invented by
Ans : Douglas Engelbert
*Unit which is used to represent the speed of a mouse
Ans : Mickey
*Most commonly, working of wireless mouse is based on 
Ans : Infrared Rays
*The company that developed mouse
Ans : Xerox PARC
*The first mouse was marketed by 
Ans : Apple
*The blinking symbol which indicates the next position of the character is called 
Ans : Cursor
*The device used for moving the cursor on the screen of a computer 
Ans : Mouse
*A small figure which depicts some applications on the screen is called
Ans : Icon



OMR


*The system used for the evaluation of competitive examinations 
Ans : OMR (Optical Mark Reader)
*An optical input device that interprets pencil marks on paper media is Optical Mark Reader (OMR)



BARCODE


*A barcode is simply a numeric code represented as a series of lines.
*These lines can be read by a barcode reader/ scanner.
*Barcode Reader is an input device for reading printed bar codes. It converts optical impulses to electrical impulses.
*When the laser beam falls on it barcode reader measures the amount of light it reflected back.
*The dark bars on a barcode reflect less light than the white spaces between them.



MONITOR


* User gets the result of processed data through output devices.
Pixel and Resolution
*Resolution of monitor is associated with the number of pixels on monitor 
*The smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen is known as 
Ans : Pixel
*Pixel is the short form for 
Ans : Picture element
*Capability of a sensor to observe the smallest object clearly is called as 
Ans : Resolution
*Resolution depends upon the size of the pixel
*Images with smaller pixel will have a higher resolution
*Pictures with higher resolution occupy more memory space on the disc



PRIMARY MEMORY


*Memory which is also known as the main memory
Ans : Primary memory  
*Primary memory is classified into RAM and ROM
*Which of the following memory needs periodic refresh ?
(a)SRAM
(b) DRAM
(c ) ROM 
(d)All of the above
Ans :  (b)



Interrupts


*An event external to the currently executing process that causes a change in the normal flow of instruction execution is called interrupts On getting an interrupt, CPU
(a)Finishes the current instruction and moves to interrupt service routine
(b)Immediately moves to interrupt service routine without completing current instruction
(c )Release the control on ILO lines and memory lines
(d)make the peripheral device, which requested the interrupt wait for fixed interval of time 
Ans :  (b)



RAM & ROM


*Memory which is usually termed as main memory of the system
Ans : RAM 
*RAM is a volatile memory. Because it loses its data when computer is turned off.
*RAM is a temporary memory.
*RAM is located on the motherboard. 
*ROM is a non - volatile memory because it doesn’t lose its data even after computer is turned off.
*We can’t change the data stored in ROM.



Types of RAM


*VRAM (Video RAM) - Special purpose 4 memory used by Video adapters to store image data for a computer display
*SGRAM (Synchronous Graphics RAM)- It is a clock synchronized RAM that is 4 used for Video Memory.
*MDRAM (Multibank Dynamic RAM). It  is a high perfomance RAM that divides memory into multiple 32KB parts or banks that can be accessed individually.
*RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic RAM) - It is a video RAM.
*SDRAM is faster than regular DRAM because - it runs synchronously with the system clock



SECONDARY MEMORY


*Secondary memory stores data permanently.  
*Secondary memory is also known as external memory.
Examples: Magnetic tape. Magnetic Discs (Hard Disc, Floppy Disc),Optical Discs, Flash drives
*A magnetic tape is a recording medium consisting of a thin tape with coating of fine magnetic material used for recording data. 



Hard Disk


*A hard disk is usually used inside the CPU. 
*A hard disk is divided into tracks and sectors.
 *The activity of creating sectors and tracks on a hard disk is called 
(a) Tracking (b) Sectoring
(c ) Plattering (d) Formatting
Ans :  (d) Formatting
*The normal size of a Hard drive sector is 
Ans : 512 bytes
*A hard disk used for storage externally as a substitute for portable storage is known as External hard disk 



Floppy Disk


*Floppy disk was discovered by
Ans : Alan Shugart
*Size of a common floppy disk 
Ans : 3.5 inches
*3.5 inches size floppy drives and floppy disks are developed by
Ans : SONY
*8 inches size floppy disks are developed by 
Ans : IBM
*Storage capacity of a common floppy disk -
Ans : 1.44 MB
*The part of the computer where floppy disks are inserted is known as
Ans : Floppy disk drive



Optical discs


*Examples of optical disc are
Ans : CD, DVD, Blu ray disc
*Data on optical disc is stored in the form of light and dark pits.
*CD - Compact Disk
*Storage capacity of a standard CD
Ans : 650- 750 MB (70 minutes of audio)
*Diameter of a standard CD
Ans : 12 cm
*The term “Red book”, “Yellow book” and   “Orange book  refer to
Ans : CD ROM Standard
*DVD - Digital Versatile Disk (formally known as Digital Video Disk)
*Storage capacity of a common DVD 
Ans : 4.7 GB
*Optical disk having high storage capacity 
Ans : Blu-ray disk
*Storage capacity of a standard single layer Blu -ray disc
Ans : 25 GB



LASER 


*The technology used in CD 
Ans : LASER Technology
*LASER 
Ans : Light Amplification by. Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
*LASER was discovered by -
Ans : Theodore Maiman



See the difference


*Technology which is used in the processor of a computer to stimulate a single processor into two virtual processors to the Operating System 
Ans : Hyper threading technology 
*Hyper threading technology allows a single procesor core to execute two independent threads simultaneously
*This technology makes a single physical processor appears as two logical processors.
*Combined two processors, their caches and cache controllers on to a single integrated circuit is called - Dual core technology
*Multi core technology - It is a type of architecture where a single physical processor contains the core logic of two or more processors, these processors are packaged into a single integrated circuits (IC).
*Multitasking - CPU executes multiple programmes at a time.
*Multiplexing - Multiplexing, is a network technique that integrates multiple analog and digital signals into a signal transmitted over a shared medium.



SASD & DASD


*A group of data storage devices that read their data in sequence are called - SASD (Sequential Access Storage Devices) 
*Example of SASD devices - Magnetic tapes(Casettes)
*A group of data storage devices that can read their data in any order are called - DASD (Direct Access Storage Devices) 
*Examples of DASD devices - Hard disk, Pen drive, CD, DVD etc.
*BIOS is stored in - Flash Memory Chip 



CMOS


*CMOS - Complementary Metal -Oxide Semiconductor
*CMOS is an on-board, battery powered semiconductor chip inside the computers that stores information.



Flash Memory


*Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage chip made up of EEPROM.
*Examples of flash memory storage devices are - USB Flash drive, Memory Cards
*Flash memory cards are widely used in Mobile phones, digital camera, industrial robotics etc.
*Virtual memory is an imaginary memory area supported by some operating systems.
*The process of translating virtual address to physical address is known as - Mapping



Access time


*The time required to reach a particular storage location and obtain its content in a disk is called Access time Seek time
*The average time takes to move read / write head to a particular track on a disk.



Latency Time


*In general, it is the time between initiating a request in the computer and receiving the answer.
*1 Nibble - 4 bits
*1 Byte - 8 bits
*1 KB - 1024 Bytes ≈ 1000 bytes
*1 MB - 1024 KB ≈ 1 million bytes
*1 GB - 1024 MB ≈ 1 billion bytes
*1 TB - 1024 GB  ≈  1 Trillion bytes 
*All buses consist of two parts. They are - Address bus and data bus.
*Set of wires which is used to transfer the address of specific memory locations  
Ans : Address bus
*Set of wires that provides transportation of data
Ans : Data bus
*Data bus transfers actual data.
*Bus that connects CPU to RAM (main memory) on the motherboard is known as
Ans : System bus
*Set of wires used to transmit signals to control the operation of various units of a computer is called
Ans : Control bus 
*The component which routes data between the computer buses is known as
Ans : Chipset



Measurement of Memory


*The smallest unit of memory is bit.
*Bit is the short form of binary digit
*The speed of a hard disc is measured in 
Ans : Revolutions Per Minute (RPM)
*Memory of a computer is usually measured in
Ans : Bytes
*The storage capacity of a hard disc is measured in Megabytes, Gigabytes & Terabytes.
*1 bit is one or zero (1 or 0)
*Half byte is known as - nibble



Cache Memory


*A small high speed memory which is used to store a portion of a program or data temporarily from the main memory.
*Processor retrieves instructions or data  from the cache memory.
*Cache memory acts between - CPU & RAM Register



Register


*Serially interconnected group of highspeed memory cells inside the CPU is called - Register
*All data must be represented in a register before it is processed.
*Number of registers a CPU has, and the size of each helps to determine the power and speed of a CPU.
*Part of CPU which supply operands to ALU - Register
*Part of CPU which store result of ALU operations - Register



Buffer


*Buffer is a storage area in RAM, where data is stored for a short amount of time.
*The purpose of a buffer is to hold data right before it is used



Address


*A unique - identification of a location in  memory is called address
*Which of the following memory has the shortest access time 
(a) Virtual memory (b) Cache memory 
(c )External memory (d) Same 
Ans :  (b) Cache memory



Father of Jquery


*Father of computer
Ans :  Charles Babbage
*Father of Computer Science
Ans : Alan Turing
*Father of Information Theory
Ans : Claude Shannon
*Father of Information Technology in India
Ans : Rajiv Gandhi
*Father of electronic digital computer
Ans : John Vincent
*Father of internet
Ans : Vinton Cerf
*Father of free software
Ans : Richard Stallman
*Father of Binary Code
Ans : Eugene Paul Curtis
*Father of Super computer
Ans : Seymur Cray
*Father of Indian Super Computer
Ans : Dr. Vijay P. Bhatkar
*Father of personal computer
Ans : Henry Roberts (Philip Don Estridge is also known as Father of Personal Computer)
*Father of video games 
Ans : Ralph Baer
*Father of Data processing
Ans : Herman Hollerith
*Father of Artificial Intelligence
Ans : John McCarthy
*Father of jQuery 
Ans : John Resig



HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE


*Hardware is the physical equipments and components of a computer that can be seen and touched.
Eg. Mother Board, Keyboard, Mouse, Printer



Mother Board


*Motherboard is a board which contains many crucial electronic components system such as CPU, Video card, network cards etc.
*Motherboard is also known as- Printed Circuit Board (PCB) or System Board



Software


*Software is a set of instructions given to computer, written in particular language (C, C, Java etc) to control and coordinate computer hardwares.
*Software cannot be sensed by touch. 
*People those who develop softwares are known as programmers.
*First computer programmer 
Ans:Ada Lovelace 



Types of Software


System Software


*System software coordinates the operations of various hardware components of the computer.
*It is designed to run hardware and application programs of computer. 
Examples: Operating system, Utility software, Device Drives etc



Utility software


*Utility software is a set of system programs used to perform standard computer operations such as sorting, deleting copying files, password protection, file compression etc



Application software


*Application softwares are the Software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks
Examples: Tally, MS Office, Media players etc



Generic software 


*Generic software is a class of software that can be used for a number of different purpose without requiring modification.



Free Software


*Software which does not give the user freedom to study, modify and share the. software
Ans : Proprietary Software 
*It is licensed under exclusive legal right of the copyright holder, eg: MS Windows 
*Proprietary software which provided to users only for a limited period of time on a trial basis - Shareware (Trialware)
*Free software allows the users to study, modify and distribute the software, eg: Linux 
*Which among the following is not an Open source software 
(a) Firefox (b) Python
(c ) R. Programming (d) Tally 
Ans :  (d) Tally
(Sales. Asst.Gr.il, 2016) 
*Tally is a financial accounting software package
*The term “free software” was coined by
Ans : Richard Stallman (1985)
*Founder of the free software movement 
Ans : Richard Stallman
*ICFOSS is an autonomous institution under the Government of Kerala, with the objectives of co-ordinating free & open source software initiatives within Kerala 
*ICFOSS- International centre for Free & Open Source software



Firmware


*Firmware is a combination of hardware and software
*Computer chips that have programs recorded on them are known as - Firmware
*Type of Softwares which' are copyrighted but still can be used'for free
Ans : Firmware 
*Firmware is stored in
Ans : ROM
*Examples of firmware
Ans : ROM, EPROM. Flash Memory
*Common firmware containing devices 
Ans : Computers, Mobiles phones, Digital cameras



Operating system


*Operating system is a collection of programs which controls the overall operations of the computer.
*It works as an interface between computer hardware and user.
*Important operating systems are
Ans : Linux, DOS, Windows, Mac OS, Unix, Ubuntu etc 
*Windows operating system was developed by
Ans : Microsoft
*Founders of Microsoft 
Ans : Bill Gates, Paul Allen
*First version of windows operating system 
Ans : Windows 1.0
*Windows operating system for mobile phones is known as 
Ans : Windows mobile 
*Android, operating-system for mobile phone was developed by
Ans : Google 
*Cupcake, Sandwich, Gingerbread, Jelly Bean, Kitkat, Lolipop, Marshmallow are some versions of Android.
*Linux Operating system was developed by
Ans : Linus Benedict Torvalds
*Linux is a free software
*First fully supported 64-bit Operating System
Ans : Linux
*Mac OS (Macintosh Operating System) was developed by
Ans : Apple 
*Leopard, Snow leopard, Mountain Lion, Mavericks etc are the versions of Mac OS 
*AIX, the unix associated operating system was developed by
Ans : IBM 
*Operating system in which assembly language was first used
Ans : UNIX 
*Process of loading the operating system in the memory when computer is switched ON is called
Ans : Booting
*Latest version of windows operating system
Ans : Windows 10
*Latest Version of Android
Ans : Nougat
Algorithm & Flowchart
*A sequence of Logical Steps used in computer to solve a problem 
Ans : Algorithm.
*Pictorial representation of algorithm is called flowchart.
*An algorithm expressed using; a precise notation which can be executed by a computer is called Program
*Name the system file in DOS OS that automatically runs after operating system starts working
Ans : AUTOEXEC.BAT



Warm boot & Cold boot


*Warm boot is one method of resetting a computer system that is already powered ON.
*Warm reboot is otherwise known as Soft boot.
*The process of turning ON the computer after it has been powered OFF is known as Cold boot.
*Cold boot is otherwise known as Hard boot.



India's Boss


*The software package known as “India's own PC Operating System"
Ans : Boss GNU/Linux (BOSS)
*BOSS - Bharat Operating System Solutions,
*BOSS is a free software.
*Number of languages supported by BOSS
Ans : 18
*BOSS was developed by 
Ans : C-DAC, Chennai
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