*American Constitution is the shortest and the oldest written Constitution in the world.
*In a democracy the real power vests with the people.
*Constitutions can be divided into two - written and unwritten
*Indian Constitution and American Constitution are examples of written constitution.



Written or Enacted
*A written constitution is one in which most of the basic principles are reduced to writing.
*It is found in one or more legal documents duly enacted in the forms of law.
*It is the result of the conscious and deliberate efforts of the people.
*A written constitution is otherwise called as ‘Enacted Constitution'.



Unwritten or Evolved
*An unwritten constitution is one in which most of the provisions are not in written form.
*It is not enacted by a representative body.
*It consists of customs, conventions, traditions and may also som..................
PRESIDENT OF INDIA
*The Union executive consists of the President, the Vice President, the Prime Minister, the Council of Ministers and the Attorney General of India.
*Article 52 says that there shall be a President of India. The President is the head of the Indian Union.
*Prime Minister is the head of Central Government
*President is the de-jure or constitutional head of the State, while the Prime Minister is the 
*The President is elected not directly by the people, but by an electoral college consisting of:
(a)elected members of both the Houses of Parliament.
(b)elected members of Legislative Assemblies of states, and the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.
*The election is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote 
*Nominated members of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of states have no right to vote in the Presidenti..................
Vice Presidents of India
1.Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan - 1952-1962
2.Dr. Zakir Hussain - 1962-1967
3.V.V. Giri - 1967- 1969
4.Gopal SwarupPathak - 1969 - 1974
5.BCD. Jatti - 1974- 1979
6.Muhammad Hidayatullah - 1979 - 1984
7. R. Venkataraman - 1984- 1987
8. Shankar Dayal Sharma - 1987-1992
9.K.R. Narayanan - 1992-1997
10.Krishan Kant - 1997 - 2002
11.Bhairon Singh Shekhawat  - 2002-2007
12. Mohammed Hamid Ansari -  2007 - Incumbent
(1)Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
(2)Justice M. Hidayathullah
(3)Dr. Sahkar Dayal Sharma


Key facts
*The first Vice President of India 
Ans : Dr. S. Radhakrishnan 
*Longest serving Vice President 
Ans : Dr. S. Radhakrishnan 
*Shortest serving Vice President 
Ans : V.V. Giri
*The first Malayalee to become the Vice President of India 
Ans : Dr.K.R.N..................
Protem Speaker
*The Speaker of the last Lok Sabha vacates his office immediately before the first meeting of the newly elected Lok Sabha.
*Therefore the President appoints a member of the Lok Sabha as the Protem Speaker (usually the seniormost member).
*The oath of office to the Speaker Protem is administered by the President.
*The Protem speaker presides Qver the first sitting of the newly elected Lok Sabha.
*His main duty is to administer oath of office to the new members and to conduct the election of the new speaker. 
*His office exists till the new speaker is elected by the House.


LEGISLATIVE PROCEDURES
*The most important function of the Parliament is law making. The legislative procedure is initiated in the form of a Bill.
*A Bill is a proposed legislation. It becomes the law when it is passed by both the Houses and assented to by the President.
*These bills ar..................
Study for first rank
*“Information” means any material in any form, including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advice, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force;
*“Public authority” means any authority or body or institution of self-government or constituted—
(a)by or under the Constitution;
(b)by any other law made by Parliament;
(c )by any other law made by State Legislature;
(d)by notification issued or order made by the appropriate Government, and includes any—
(i)body owned, controlled or substantially financed;
(ii)non-Government organisation substantially financed, directly or indirectly by funds provided by the appropriate Government;
*“Right..................
AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
*The procedure laid down for the amendment of the constitution of India is neither as easy as in Britain nor as difficult as in USA. 
*Indian Constitution is neither rigid nor flexible but a synthesis of both.
*Article 368 in part XX of the constitution deals with the powers of Parliament to amend the constitution.
*A constitutional Amendment bill can be initiated in either House of Parliament only and not in the state legislatures.
*Prior permission of the President is not required to introduce a constitutional Amendment Bill.
*The Bill must be passed in each House by a special majority, that is a majority of the total membership of the House and a majority of two - thirds of the members of the House present and voting.
*Each house must pass the bill separately. 
*There is no provision for a joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament to pass a constitutional Amendment B..................
Kerala God's Own Country
Kerala stands first
*The first state to achieve 100% primary education
*The first state to industrialise tourism. 
*India’s first total banking state.
*The first state in India to establish a film academy.
* The state having highest literacy rate in India.
*The state having highest sex-ratio in India.
*The first Indian state to achieve total literacy rate.
* The first baby friendly state in India.
* The first state in India to setup Disaster Management Authority.
*The first state in the country to constitute a pollution control board.
*The first state in India to form a Dam Safety Authority.
* The first state in India to introduce a comprehensive State Water Policy.
*The first state in India to connect all villages through roads.
*The first state in India to launch Air Ambulance.



n..................
*Panchayats have the key role in planning, implementing and monitoring the programme.
*Grama Sabha has the power of Social audit. 
*If work is not provided within 15 days of application, the state is expected to pay an unemployment allowance which is one fourth of the wage rate for the first 30 days and not less than one-half of the wage rate for'the remaining period of the financial year as per Section. 7 of NREG Act.
*An anthology of research studies of
Ans:MGNREGA- MGNREGA Sameeksha
World Record
*World Bank Ranked MGNREGP as the World’s largest Public Works Programme.



Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
*Prime MinisterTongue.V. Narasimha Rao
*During: 8th Five Year Plan
*Date / Year:2nd October 1993
*Central Government is the sponsor of PMRY. PMRY scheme was administrated by - Ministry of Labour
*PMRY was initially introduced in Urban Areas. [/..................
Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) 
*Prime Minister:Manmohan Singh
*During : 11th Five Year Plan
*Date / Year : March 2009
*The main objective of the scheme is to enhance secondary education and to improve its quality.
*During five years of implementation of the scheme provides secondary education in a certain distance to all inhabitants in the country.
*Some other aims of the scheme include enhancement of quality education especially for secondary level, removing gender bias, offering universal standard of education by the end of 2017.
*This project is being implemented by various state government societies which are set up for the improvement of the secondary education.



Mid-Day Meal Scheme
*Prime Minister Tongue.V.Narasimha Rao
*During :8th Five Year Plan
*Date/Year:15th August 1995
*The main objective of the scheme is to provide day lu..................
OTHER WELFARE PROGRAMMES
*The programme launched for extending single point light connection to rural poor households below poverty line 
Ans : Kutir Jyoti (1988-89)
*The World Bank assisted programme to improve the quality work of functionaries of ICDS scheme  
Ans : Udisha (1999)
*The scheme launched by the Union Ministry, of Women and Child Development for the' rehabilitation of women in difficult circumstances
Ans : Swadhar (2002).
*The scheme launched for the prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation and re-. integration of victims of Trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation
Ans : Ujjawala (2016)
*The scheme launched for AADHAR based biometric enabled digital, life certificate to pensioners 
Ans : Jeevan Praman (2014) 
*The campaign launched in 2015 to train the youngsters with different skills
Ans : Skin India (2015)
*The scheme launched to imp..................
BASIC FACTS
*India is the seventh largest country in the world, with a total area of 32,87,263/ Sq km. 
*India is situated north of the equator between 8°4' and 37°6’ north latitude and 68°7  and 97°25’ east longitude.



Largest & Smallest
*Largest State : Rajasthan
*Smallest State : Smallest State : 
*Largest Union Territory : Andaman & Nicobar
*Smallest Union Territory : Lakshadweep
*Largest district : Kutch
*Smallest district : Mahi
*India is the second most populated country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people,more than a sixth'of the world’s population.
*India has 17.5% of the world’s population.
*Density of Population
Ans : 382/SqKm
*Most populous State
Ans : Uttar Pradesh
*Least populous State
Ans : Sikkim
*Most populous Union Territory 
Ans : Delhi
*Least populou..................
Andhra pradesh
*Capital - Amaravathi 
*Formation - 1956 November 1 
*Language - Telugu 
*Festivals - Diwali, Dasra 
*Rivers - Krishna, Godavar ,Tungabhadra
*State Animal - Blackbuck
*State Bird - Indian Roller
*State Flower - Lotus
*State Tree - Neem
*Andhra is the first State formed by linguistic basis.
*Andhra state was established on lstOctober 
*1953. In 1956 Andhra was changed into Andhra Pradesh. 
*The capital of Andhra state was Kurnool.
*M,K. Vellodi was the first chief minister of Hyderabad state.
*T. Prakasam was the first Chief Minister of Andhra state.
*Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
*After the bifurcation, Andhra Pradesh has 13 districts, 25 Lok Sabha seats and 11 Rajya Sabha seats.
*Amaravathi is the proposed capital city area of Andhra Pradesh
*The South Indian state which..................
 Uttar Pradesh
*Capital - Lucknow
*Formation -1950 January 26
*Language - Hindi,Urdu
*Major Festival - Ramleela
*Major Rivers - Ganges,Yamuna
*State Animal - Swamp deer (Barasingha)
*State Flower - Brahm kamal
*State Tree - Ashok
*In vedic period Uttar Pradesh is known as Brahmarshi desam.
*Uttarpradesh is known as sugar bowl of India
*Aryavartam, Madyadesam, etc, are also the old names of Uttar Pradesh.
*Banaras Hindu University is located at Varanasi in UP
*Uttar Pradesh is one of the leading Agricultural producers in India. It is the leading producer of Barley, Wheat, Sugarcane, Bajra etc.
*The city known as ‘City of Nawabs’ 
Ans : Lucknow
*The last Maha Kumbhamela (happens once in every 144 years) took place in
Ans : Allahabad (2013)
*Allahabad was formerly known as ‘Prayag’.
*First Air mail system in India was estab..................
Haryana
*Capital-Chandigarh
*Formation-1966 November
*Language-Hindi
*Major Festivals-Lohri,Baisakhi
*Major River-Khaggar
*State Animals -Blackbuck
*State Bird-Black Francolin
*State Flower-Lotus
*State Tree-Peepal
*Haryana is known as the Milk Pail of India. 
*Haryana is known as Denmark of India.  
*Surajkund is famous for' popular craft mela
*Hindi and Punjabi are the major languages in Haryana
*The person known as Sher-e-Haryana (Lion of Haryana)
Ans : Chaudhary Devi Lal 
*The first woman speaker of State Legislative assembly in India 
Ans : Shanno Devi (Haryana assembly)
*Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes is at Hisar in Haryana.
*Gurgaon is the centre of Maruti Udydg Limited and Hero Honda Limited.
*First International Gita festival was conducted in
Ans : Haryana
*First women police volunte..................
Uttarakhand
*Capital  -  Dehradun
*Formation - 2000 November 9 
*Language - Hindi, Sanskrit
*Major Festivals - Basant panchami, Bhitauli
*Major Rivers - Bhagiradhi, Alakananda, Ganges, Yamuna
*State Animal - Muskdeer
*State Bird - Himalayan monal
*State Flower - Brahm Kamal
*State Tree - Burans
*Uttarakhand was formed on 9th November 2000 and became the 27th state of India.
*The name Uttarakhand came into being in January 2007.
*Uttarakhand is the only state in India which has Sanskrit as one of it’s official languages. Uttarakhand is known as ‘Land of Gods’ (Dev Bhoomi)
*Uttarakhand economy is nicknamed as ‘Money order economy’.
*Hindi, Garhwali, Kumauni are the principal languages of Uttarakhand.
*Badrinath, Devaprayag, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Yamunothri, Gangothri, etc. are major pilgrim centers in Uttarakhand.
*Rishikesh is considered as..................
Maharashtra
*Capital - Mumbai
*Formation - 1960 May 1 
*Language - Marathi 
*Major Festival - Ganesh chathurthi 
*Major Rivers - Krishna, Godavari, Tapti
*State Animal - Giant Squirrel 
*State Bird - Yellow- footed green pigeon
*State Flower - Jarul 
*State Tree - Mango
*Maharashtra is the second most populous state in India.
*Maharashtra is known as the power house of India.
*The Seat of High Court of Maharashtra, Goa and the Union Territories of Dadra Nagar Haveli and Daman Diu is situated at Mumbai.
*Mumbai is the financial capital of India
*Maharashtra is the most industrialised and most urbanised state in India.
*First state to disburse salary through Adhar linked bank accounts 
Ans :  Maharashtra.
*Leading producer of Electricity in India is Maharashtra
*Maharashtra has the largest Jainist, Buddhist and Parsi population...................
Sikkim
*Capital - Gangtok 
*Formation - 1975 May 16 
*Language - English
*Major Festivals - Saga Dawa, Dassain
*Major Rivers - Teesta, Lonak
*State Animal - Red Panda
*State Bird - Blood pheasant
*State Flower - Noble orchid
*State Tree - Rhododendron 
*Sikkim became a state of India in 1975.
*The name Sikkim literarly means ‘New house’
*Sikkim became a state of India by 36th constitutional amendment act.
*The earliest inhabitants of Sikkim were Lepchas.
*In Tibetan region Sikkim is known as Densong.
*Kanchenjunga the world’s third highest peak is in Sikkim.
*Kanchenjunga peak is known as Guardian' deity of Sikkim.
*China accepted Sikkim as one of the states of India in 2004.
*Nathula pass, Connecting Lhasa in Tibet to India is reopened in 2006 after closing the pass since 1962 Indo- China war (ancient which was known as silk ro..................
VICEROYS OF INDIA
Lord Canning (1856-62)
*The British Governor General during the first war of Indian Independence
Ans : Lord Canning.
*The first Viceroy and last governor general of India
Ans : Lord Canning 
*The universities of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras were established during the tenure of 
Ans : Lord Canning (1857)
*The viceroy who introduced income tax in  India
Ans : Lord Canning
*The viceroy who passed the Indian Penal Code
Ans : Lord Canning (1860)
*Doctrine of Lapse was officially withdrawn by Lord Canning (1859)
*The viceroy during the Indigo revolt in Bihar
Ans : Lord Canning
*Portfolio system was introduced by
Ans : Lord Canning (1861)
*White mutiny in English East India Company occured during the period of - Lord Canning (1859)
*The Indian High Court Act was passed during the tenure of
Ans : Lord Canning (1861)
..................
SOCIO - RELIGIOUS REFORMS
Prarthana Samaj
*Prarthana Samaj was founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang.
*Veeresalingam Pantulu was the Telungu reformer who encouraged ‘Prarthana Samaj ’ in South India.



Theosophical Movement
*The Theosophical society was founded by Westerners who drew inspiration from Indian thought and culture.
*It was founded by Madam Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott at New York in 1875 
*In 1882 they shifted its headquarters to Adayar near Madras. 
*In 1893, Annie Besant arrived in India and took over  the leadership of the society.
*In India Theosophical Movement became popular under the leadership of Mrs.Annie Besant.
*Central Hindu School at Benarus became Benarus Hindu'University under the leadership of Madan Mohan Malavya.



Young Bengal Movement
*Young Bengal Movement was started by Henry Vivi..................
 Government of India Act 1935
*The Congress Committee did not agree to the proposals in the “white paper” issued after the Third Round Table Conference in 1932. 
*Based on these proposals the British government introduced a bill in the British Parliament on 19th December 1934, which later became the Government of India Act 1935.
*The Act proposed a federal system consisting of two houses, council of states and federal assembly.
*The Act of 1935 introduced provincial Autonomy in the provinces and Dyarchy at the centre.
*The first general election as per the Act of 1935 was held in 1937,
*In the General Election held in 1937 Congress got the majority. But all the Congress ministers resigned in 1939 as a protest against the decision of Britain to drag India into the second world war.
*The Act proposed to establish a federal court and Reserve Bank.
*Despite its merits and demerits the Government of India..................
India-Basic Geographical Facts
*The latitudinal extenion of India -8°4’N to 37° 6'N
*The longitudinal extension of India -68° 7E to 97°25’E
*Total geographical area-32,87,263 km2 (3.28 million sq.km.)
*Percentage of earth's surface covered by India-2.42%
*North-South distance-3,214 k m 
*East-West distance-2,933 km 
*Length of the coast line (mainland)-6100 km
*Length of the coast line including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands -7516.6km 
*Length of land frontier -15106.7 km
*Indian standard time is fixed based on - 82 1/2°E longitude
*Southern most point of the country-Pygmalion Point or Indira Point or Parson point (Andaman & Nicobar)
*Southern most point of Indian main land-Cape Comorin
*Northern most point-Indira Col
*Western most point-West,of Ghuar Moti, Gujarat
*Eastern most point-Kibithu, Arunachal Pradesh
*Highest point..................
RIVERS OF INDIA
Himalayan Rivers
*The Himalayan river system comprises the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
*Most of these rivers and their major tributaries are perennial in character, obtaining their water from the glaciers and rain.
*Most of the Himalayan rivers, are 'Older than the Himalayas. Such rivers are known as antecedent rivers.



Indus
*The Indus is one of the most important drainage systems in the Indian:Subcontinent.
*It has a length of 2880 km Of which 800.75 km lies in India.
*It is the western most river system in the Indian subcontinent.
*The Indian river which form deep gorges 
Ans : Indus
*The only west flowing Himalayan river
Ans : Indus
*It is an antecedent river.
*The source region of Indus river is Bokharchu glacier (near Manasarover lake) 
*In Tibet it is called as Singi Kham..................
LAKES
*Lake is a natural depression filled with water.



Chilka
*The largest lake in India
Ans : Chilka lake (Odishia).
*The largest salt lake in India
Ans : Chilka
*Chilka lake is at the mouth of river - Mahanadi
*Lake in India which has been named ‘Destination Fly ways' by the World Tourism Organization 
Ans : Chilka.
*The marshland at the northern edge of Chilka lake, which is declared as an International Bird'Area 
Ans : Magalajodi



Wular
*The largest fresh water lake in India - Wular lake
*It is situated in the Kashmir valley.
*It was formed as a result of tectonic activity.
*The lake which was known as Mahapadma Saras
Ans :  Wular



Kolleru
*Kolleru lake is a large fresh water lake in Andra Pradesh.
*It is located between t..................
*The main raw material used in electric Industry 
Ans : Mica
*The main raw material used in cement Industry 
Ans : Limestone
*Gypsum is mainly used in making ammonia sulphate fertilizer and in cement Industry 
*India is the third largest producer of coal in the world
*Lignite is also known as ‘Brown coal’
*Four stages of coal formation - 1. Peat, 2. Lignite, 3. Bituminous, 4. Anthracite 
*The first stage in coal formation is peat 
*Anthracite is the coal with the highest carbon content



OIL FIELDS IN INDIA
*The first public sector refinery of India
Ans : Guwahati refinery
*Jawaharlal Nehru called Ankleshwar oil field as the‘fountain of prosperity’.
*The India’s largest oil refinery 
Ans : Jamnagar refinery
*It is owned and operated by Reliance Industry.
*Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC) is a state owned oil. ..................
INTRODUCTION 
*Economics is the branch of science that deals with the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
*The study of wealth is called 
Ans : Aphnology. 
*The father of Modem Economics
Ans : Adam Smith (Scotland)
*Laissez-Faire is the policy of non-interference by government in economic activities.
*Laissez - Faire Policy is related to Adam Smith
*The law of demand was proposed by
Ans : Alfred Marshall



Famous Economists Theories
*Laissez - Faire Theory - Adam Smith 
*Elasticity of Demand - Alfred Marshall 
*Marginal Productivity - J.B. Clark 
*Theory of Distribution - David Ricardo 
*Population Theory - Thomas Robert Malthus



National Income & Per capita Income 
National Income
*National Income is the sum to..................
Nationalisation of Banks
*Nationalisation means transfer of ownership and management of an undertaking from private hands to the state.
*The Prime Minister who nationalised Banks in India 
Ans : Indira Gandhi
*The first nationalisation of banks took place on 19th July 1969. 14 banks were nationalised whose deposit exceeded Rs. 50 crores.
*On 15th April, 1980, second time Government nationalised six banks whose deposit exceeded Rs. 200 crores.
*Number of Nationalised banks in India
Ans : 19



Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
*The central Bank of India - Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
*RBI was set up on the recommendation of Hilton Young Commission (1926). It was also called Royal Commission.
*The Reserve Bank..................
DEFENCE
*Indian defence system has been divided into three services
Ans : Army, Navy and Airforce 
*Headquarters of Army, Navy and Airforce are located in 
Ans : New Delhi.
*The Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces (Defence System) of India 
Ans : President of India
*The whole administrative control of the defence forces lies in
Ans : Ministry of Defence
*Defence Ministry was renamed
Ans : Integrated Head Quarters of the Ministry of Defence (July 1,2002)
*Committee formed by the Central Government to. unify Army, Air and Navy forces 
Ans : Integrated Defence Staff 
*Present Chief of Integrated Defence Staff 
Ans : Lt. Gen. Satish Dua
*The Defence Minister is responsible for all matters concerning the defence services. 
*Central Cabinet of India has the responsibility to control national defence.



Ministry of Defence ..................
*Newly appointed Chief of the Indian Air Force 
Ans : Air Chief Marshal BirenderSingh Dhanoa  
*First malayali who has been appointed as the -Deputy Chief of Air Staff of the Indian Airforce 
Ans : Air Marshal Reghunath Nambiar
*First Indian airforce officer to get Param Vir Chakra
Ans : N.J.S. Sekhon (Indo Pakistan war of 1971)
*First Indian airforce officer to get Ashoka Chakra
Ans : Fit. Lt. Suhas Biswas (Second was Sqn Ldr. Rakesh Sharma in 1984 for Space Flight)
*First person to get Honarary rank of Group Captain by Indian Airforce
Ans : J.R.D. Tata
*J.R.D. Tata was conferred the honarary rank of Air Vice Marshal in 
Ans : 1 April 1974



MISSILES
*The father of Indian Missile Technology 
Ans : APJ Abdul Kalam 
*Missile Launching Pad of India is at 
Ans : Chandipur (Odisha)
*The first missile developed under the programme of..................
INDIAN RAILWAY 
*Indian railway is known as
Ans : “The life line of india”
*Indian Railway is the second largest railway system in Asia
*Indian railway is the fourth largest railway network in the world after that of U.S.A, Russia and China.
*Indian Railway is the second largest electrified railway system in the world (first- Russia) 
*Indian Railways was earlier known as
Ans : Great Indian Peninsular Railway.
*Father of Indian Railway
Ans : Lord Dalhousie 
*Indian Railway started its first train service on
Ans : 16th April 1853 (Bombay-Thane, 34 Km) 
*Indian Railway is the biggest public sector in India.
*Indian Railway Act was passed in
Ans : 1890 
*Indian Railway Board was established in
Ans : 1905 
*Indian railway was nationalised in
Ans : 1951 
*Headquarters of Indian Railway
Ans : Baroda house (New Delhi)[/..................
*Travancore State Transport Department was formed in
Ans : 1938 
*The Travancore King who inaugurated Travancore State Transport Department 
Ans : Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma
*The Diwan of Travancore during the formation of Travancore State Transport Department
Ans : Sir C.P. Ramaswami Iyyer 
*First bus service in Travancore was started on 
Ans : 20th February 1938 
*The first Minister for Transport in Kerala 
Ans : T.V. Thomas
*KSRTC (Kerala State Road Transport Corporation) was established in 
Ans : 1965
*Most number of vehicles registered in Kerala is in 
Ans : Ernakulam
*Least number of vehicles registered in Kerala is in 
Ans : Wayanad district
*The district through which most national highways pass through 
Ans : Ernakulam
*Least number of highways in Kerala 
Ans : Wayanad
*The most number of PWD roads in Kerala 
..................
Education
*The development of the education system in India can be broadly divided into three stages.
1) Ancient Period 
2) British Period 
3) Post Independence Period
*University which has developed the world’s first light seeking synthetic Nano Robot
Ans : University of Hongkong



Education in ancient India
*In ancient India education was imparted through the gurukul system.
*The process of learning generally began with a religious ceremony called ‘Upanayana’
*Earlier mention about self education can be found in the Taitteriya Upanishad. 
*The schools at Nalanda, Pushpagiri, Takshashila Vikramshila, Odantapuri and Valabhi were some of the primary institutions of higher learning in ancient India.
*Pushpagiri University was a prominent Buddhist seat of learning established in ancient Kalinga Kingdom (modem day Odisha) around 3rd Centufy AD...................
Education in Kerala
*Kanthalloor is the ancient university in Kerala.
*Kanthalloor Salai was established by 
Ans : Karunandadakkan
*Nalanda of the south 
Ans : Kanthalloor Salai
*District having highest number of Government schools 
Ans : Malappuram 
*District having highest number of aided schools 
Ans : Kannur
*District having least number of government schools 
Ans : Wayanad 
*District having least number of aided schools
Ans : Wayanad 
*District having highest number of private unaided schools 
Ans : Maiappuram 
*District having least number of private unaided schools
Ans : Wayanad 
*District having highest number of high schools 
Ans : Ernakulam 
*District having highest number of vocational higher secondary schools 
Ans : Kollam
*‘Maktabs’ and Madrassa’ were learning centers of Islam ..................
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