COMPUTER
*Computer is an electronic device that receives data, process it and gives meaningful informations.
*The word ‘computer’ is originated from the Latin words ‘Computus’ and ‘computare’ Collection of facts and figures are called 
Ans : Data
*Processed data is called 
Ans : Information. 
*Information conveys a meaningful message
*A set of actions performed by the computer to convert data into information is called 
Ans : Data processing
*The word ‘data’ is originated from the Latin word ‘datum’
*The way that computers manipulate data into information is called 
Ans : Processing
*A program in execution is called
Ans : Process
*The type of test used in com-puting to check whether or not the password user is a human
(a)Debugging
(b)Cryptanalysis
(c )CAPTCHA 
(d) Black Box
Testing Arts : (c ) CAPTCHA..................
SUPER COMPUTER
*Father of Super computer
Ans : Seymour Cray
*Super computers are used for very complex calculations. Used for the applications in aerospace, oil explorations, geology, molecular dynamics etc.
*PARAM is a series of Super computers developed by C-DAC in Pune under the leadership of Dr. Vijay P. Bhatkar.
*C-DAC was setup in 1988
*First director of CDAC
Ans : Dr. Vijay P. Bhatkar
*Super computer developed by ISRO in 2011 - SAGA-220
*World’s fastest super computer 
Ans : Sunway Taihulight 
*Super computer developed by India are 
Ans : KKA,PARAM,Kabru,Blue Gene
*NASA’s Altix super computer named after Kalpana chawla
Ans : KC
*First super computer 
Ans : CDC 6600
*India’s first super computer 
Ans : Param 8,000
*India’s fastest super computer 
Ans : Param Yuva II (developed by - C-DAC)
*First s..................
First in Internet
*First Malayalam newspaper started its internet edition
Ans : Deepika 
*The first Indian state which provided email facility to all of its Government offices 
Ans : Goa
*First state which started its online lottery 
Ans : Sikkim
*First state in India with all of its Panchayats computerized 
Ans : Tamilnadu
*First paperless government office in India 
Ans : IT Mission
*The first bank, started its Malayalam website 
Ans :  SBT 
*First University started its Online courses 
Ans : Andhra Pradesh
*First hospital in India which used robot to conduct an operation 
Ans : AIIMS
*First pollution free computerized petrol pump of India is in 
Ans : Mumbai
*First Indian political party which has created its website on internet 
Ans : Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
*First computer literate corporation i..................
POSTAL SYATEM
*The first country to introduce postal system
Ans : Egypt
*The first country to introduce modern postal system 
Ans : England Which is known as the first ambassador of a state 
Ans :  Postal Stamp 
*The country which has the largest Postal System in the World
Ans : India 
*The first Indian ruler who started postal system 
Ans : Alauddin Khilji 
*In India Postal service was introduced in 
Ans : 1766
*The governor general when Postal System introduced in modem India 
Ans : Robert Clive 
*The Governor General at the time of introduction of Modem Postal System in India
Ans : Dalhousie
*Modem postal system in India was started in 1854.
*First act regulated the. post office on a uniform basis 
Ans : Act of 1837
*World Postal Day is on 
Ans : 9th October 
*Indian Postal day is on 
Ans : 10..................
*The study of celestial bodies and the universe)
Ans : Astronomy
*Father of modern Astronomy 
Ans : Copernicus
*Heliocentric theory was put forward by 
Ans : Nicolaus Copernicus
*Solar system was discovered by
Ans : Nicolaus Copernicus
*Geocentric Theory of Earth was put forward by
Ans : Cladius Ptolemy (Astronomer&Astrologer)
*The first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth
Ans : Eratosthenes (Astronomer and Geographer)
*The line used to define the boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space Karman Line (Line named after Theodore- Von-Karman)
*The astronomist known as ‘Law giver of the heavens’ 
Ans : Johannes Kepler
*The laws of planetary motion are discovered by
Ans : Johannes Kepler
*Chandrasekhar limit is a limiting mass below which a star becomes a white dwarf Chandrasekhar limit = 1.4 times the mass of the sun.
*Kepler..................
SPACE
*The first artificial satellite in the world
Ans : Sputnik I (4th October 1957)  
*Sputnik I was launched by 
Ans : Russia 
*The first animal sent to space
Ans : The dog name ‘Leika’
*The first man in space
Ans : Yuri Gagarin (Russia)
*The spacecraft in which Yuri Gagarin travelled
Ans : Vostok - 1
*Yuri Gagarin went to space on
Ans : 12th April 1961
*The person who was known as ‘Coloumbus of the space’ 
Ans : Yuri Gagarin
*The first woman in space 
Ans : Valentina Tereshkova (Russia, 1963) 
*The first American space traveller 
Ans : Alan Shepard
*The first American woman in space 
Ans : Sally K Ride
*The oldest man in space
Ans : John Glenn (77 years) [He died on December 8, 2016) 
*The first person to walk in space 
Ans : Alexi Leonov (USSR, 1965)
*The first woma..................
PAINTINGS
*Important paintings of Leonardo da vinci.
*Mona Lisa
*The Last Supper
*The Virgin of Rocks
*Medusa
*The Mona Lisa painting is kept now in  
Ans : Louvre Museum, Paris
*The painter who is called “Christ of the coal mines”
Ans : Vincent Van Gogh 
*Important paintings of Vincent Van Gogh
*The Starry Night
*The Potato Eaters
*Sunflowers
*The Red Vineyard
*Vincent Van Gogh Museum is in 
Ans : Amsterdam
*Co founder of Cubism 
Ans : Pablo Picasso 
*Cubism originated in 
Ans : France
*Who created Dove that became a monographic symbol of peace 
Ans : Pablo Picasso
*Picaso’s painting based on the fascist attack  on Spain 
Ans : Guernica
*Famous paintings of Pablo Picasso
*The Old Guitarist
*The Weeping Woman  
*Three Musicians
*Girl before a M..................
*The literature includes fiction, non-fiction, fables, travelogues, poetry etc.
*The creative writings of an author from imagination
Ans : Fiction 
*Writings about real life
Ans : Non fictions 
*The examples of Non-fiction
Ans : History, Biography, Autobiography, Essays 
*‘Fable’ is a moral story.
*The travelling experience of an author 
Ans : Travelogues
*Lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning the deeds of a legendary or historical hero
Ans : Epic
*Elaborately structured poem praising or glorifying an event or individual
Ans : Ode 
*Comedy which aims at entertaining the audience
Ans : Farce
*Poem which contains fourteen lines
Ans : Sonnet
*Form of verse, often set to music
Ans : Ballad 
*A preface or introductory part of a poem or novel
Ans : Prologue
*Piece of writing at the end of a work of literature or drama[/..................
WORLD CINEMA 
*First film makers in the history
Ans : Lumiere Brothers (Auguste Lumiere,Louis Lumiere)
*Father of Modern Cinema
Ans : David Griffith
*Father of Cartoon Cinema 
Ans : Walt Disney
*The Mecca of World Cinema
Ans : Hollywood
*The Capital of World Cinema
Ans : California (America)
*35mm film was invented in 1889 by
Ans : Edison
*The film showed inmost number of countries
Ans : Titanic(Director : James Cameroon)
*The first talkie film in the world
Ans : Jazz Singer (1927)
*The first colour film in the world 
Ans : Becky Sharp (1935)
*The first cinemascope film in the world
Ans : The Robe (1953)
*The first science film in the world
Ans : A Trip to Moon (Director: Georges Mellis) 
*The first Neo Realistic film 
Ans :  Bicycle Thieves 
*Director of the film ‘Bicycle Thieves..................
Basic G.K. (World)
*Largest continent - Asia
*Largest ocean - Pacific Ocean
*Largest sea - South China Sea
*Largest inland sea - Mediterranean sea
*Longest river - Nile
*Largest river - Amazon
*Largest river basin - Amazon
*Largest salt water lake - Caspian Sea 
*Largest freshwater lake - Lake Baikal (by volume)
*Lake Superior (by surface area) 
*Largest archipelago - Indonesia 
*Largest artificial lake - Lake Volta (by surface area) (Ghana) 
*Largest bay - Hudson Bay(North Canada) 
*Largest gulf - Gulf of Mexico
*Largest gorge - Grand Canyon (USA)
*Largest delta - Sundarbans (India & Bangladesh)
*Largest reef - Great Barrier Reef (Australia)
*Largest peninsula - Arabia
*Largest island - Greenland
*Largest river island - Majuli (India)
*Largest hot desert - Sahara (Africa)
*Largest cold desert - Gobi (Mon..................
Basic G.K (India)
*Highest peak - Mt.K2 (Godwin Austin)
*Highest Stone Tower - Qutub (Qutb) Minar  
*Highest Multiple Arch dam - Idukki (Kerala)
*Highest polling Booth - Hikkim (Himachal Pradesh)
*Highest Lake - Cholamoo Lake 
*Longest River Barrage - Farakka Barrage I 
*Longest Canal - Indira Gandhi Canal
*Longest Glacier - Siachen Glacier
*Longest Bridge - Bandra - Warli(Rajiv Gandhi sealink, Mumbai)
*Longest Natural Cave - Krem Liat Prah (Meghalaya)
*Longest Railway Tunnel - Pir Panjal Tunnel (Jammu - Kashmir)
*Longest River Bridge -Mahatma Gandhi Sethu
*Longest Rail bridge - Vembanad Rail Bridge (Edappally-Vallarpadam)
*Longest Beach - Marina Beach, Chennai 
*Longet National Highway - NH 7 (NewnameNH 44) 
*Longest railway platform - Gorakhpur (U.P) 
*Largest Desert - Thar (Rajasthan)
*Largest Church - Se Cathedral (Old Goa) [..................
INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS
*The branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy
Ans : Physics
*Branches of physics are Dynamics,Thermody namics, Mechanics, Optics, Acoustics, Electronics, Astrophysics, Nuclear physics.



MATTER
*Anything that possesses weight and occupies space is - Matter
*7 states of matter Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, Bose Einstein Condensate, Fermionic condensate, Quark Gluon Plasma.
*Matter that has definite shape and volume
Ans : Solid
*Matter that doesn’t have definite shape, but has definite volume - Liquid
*Matter that doesn’t have definite shape and volume, but occupies the shape of container
Ans : Gas
*Fourth state of matter - Plasma
*Fifth state of matter - Bose-Einstein Condensate
*At ultra high temperature matter exist in plasma form.
*Molecules are seen in most irre..................
Reflection
* Reflection is a phenomenon of bouncing back of light when a beam of light falls on a surface.
* Refraction is the bending of light when a ray of light travels from one medium to another.
*Due to change of medium, the phase velocity of the wave is changed but its frequency remains constant
*When a scale is immersed in a glass of water, it seems to be bended due to - refraction.
*Star appears to be twinkling due to -Refraction
*Optical illusion which is observed usually in deserts and highways on hot summerdays -Mirage
*The phenomenon of mirage in deserts is due to - Refraction  
*Fata Morgana is a term associated with -Mirage
*Snell’s law is related with Refraction.
*The tank appears shallow than its actual depth due to- Refraction
*Device which works by the principle of reflection and refraction 
Ans :  Periscope
*The measure of optical density of the m..................
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